恐鳥

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恐鳥
化石年代:中新世至公元1500年
恐鳥
恐鳥
瀕危指標
物種分類
界 (Regnum): 動物界
門 (Phylum): 脊索動物門
綱 (Classis): 鳥綱
Superorder: 古顎總目(Paleognathae)
目 (ordo): 鴕形目(Struthioniformes)
科 (familia): 恐鳥科Dinornithidae
Bonaparte1853年
Genera

Anomalopteryx (bush moa)
Euryapteryx
高地恐鳥(Megalapteryx)
Dinornis (giant moa)
Emeus
Pachyornis

恐鳥曾經係世界上最大隻嘅之一,同馬達加斯加象鳥非洲鴕鳥一樣,都係屬於平胸鳥類(即係指自泛古陸開始遺留到而家嘅一類唔識飛嘅雀)。喺11種恐鳥中,就以巨型恐鳥(Dinornis robustus 同 Dinornis novaezelandiae)最大隻,身高甚至可達4,重約 250 公斤,佢係紐西蘭嘅獨有品種。但喺白人殖民者(毛利人)到咗紐西蘭之後,就已經絕種

特徵[編輯]

高地恐鳥嘅腳(自然歷史博物館)[1]

恐鳥係一種完全冇翼嘅雀,行動主要靠強而有力嘅大髀。羽毛呈褐色,同奇異鳥差唔多。有一條好長嘅頸,就好似雀鳥中嘅長頸鹿咁。不過一般情況下,佢哋都係將條頸呈水平橫向行走,只係間中寸條頸向上伸直望嘢。每種恐鳥無論喺體型上抑或咀嘅形狀上都各有不同,咁係為咗適應森林裏面唔同嘅生存模式。

天敵[編輯]

哈斯特鷹追殺嘅恐鳥

喺毛利人嚟到紐西蘭之前,哈斯特鷹相信係恐鳥最主要嘅捕獵者,呢種鷹會用佢哋好似虎爪咁大隻嘅利爪,用力按住恐鳥嘅背部,再開始進食。證據嚟自幾具恐鳥骨骼嘅骨盆上一啲窿,位置同大細都同哈斯特鷹嘅利爪符合。咁樣嘅傷口,腳爪必須穿恐鳥肌肉達5厘米咁深[2]

但毛利人進駐紐西蘭之後,佢哋大量捕殺恐鳥以獲取營養豐富嘅鳥蛋同大髀肉,以及骨頭,皮同蛋殼作為生活上嘅必需品。

習性[編輯]

主要為獨居,或者以小家庭形式生活,有一定嘅地盤,而且有好強嘅保衛地盤意識。科學家相信,佢哋叫起嚟好似洪鐘咁,成個森林充斥住佢哋嘅「隆隆」聲。

所有恐鳥都係食齋嘅,主要食森林裏面嘅灌木同樹葉。紐西蘭好多本土嘅植物,為咗唔畀恐鳥食晒啲葉,都進化出好多由小枝構成嘅網絡結構。

因為紐西蘭以前並無陸上嘅捕獵者,連帶恐鳥嘅繁殖速率都減慢落嚟。有證據顯示,恐鳥一次只生一、兩隻蛋,而目前已發現少量嘅恐鳥巢,全部都係用岩石掩蔽嘅地窿。

絕種原因[編輯]

當毛利人進駐紐西蘭之後,佢哋開始發現呢種大型嘅雀除咗可帶嚟營養豐富嘅鳥蛋同大髀肉外,佢哋嘅骨頭,皮同蛋殼都分別成為生活上嘅主要用品,加上恐鳥性情溫馴,平易近人,先至成為大量捕獵嘅目標。而繁殖速率緩慢,亦加速佢哋嘅滅亡。

複製恐鳥[編輯]

喺紐西蘭嘅一個山窿遺跡裏面,俾人發現到有大量嘅恐鳥頭骨,估計係以前毛利人捉恐鳥嚟食時,所拋棄嘅頭骨部分,以及皮膚,羽毛等等,喺山窿遺跡度都保存得相當完好。而家牛津大學嘅科學家,正利用呢啲身體部分進行DNA研究,希望有朝一日,可以複製番呢種世界其中一種最大隻嘅雀[3]

睇埋[編輯]

資料[編輯]

    • Anderson, A. On evidence for the survival of moa in European Fiordland. New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 1989, 12 (Supplement): 39–44. 
    • Baker, Allan J.; Huynen, Leon J.; Haddrath, Oliver; Millar, Craig D. and Lambert, David M. Reconstructing the tempo and mode of evolution in an extinct clade of birds with ancient DNA: The giant moas of New Zealand. PNAS. 2005, 102 (23): 8257–8262. doi:10.1073/pnas.0409435102. PMID 15928096. 
    • Bunce, Michael; Worthy, Trevor H.; Ford, Tom; Hoppitt, Will; Willerslev, Eske; Drummond, Alexei and Cooper, Alan. Extreme reversed sexual size dimorphism in the extinct New Zealand moa Dinornis. Nature. 2003, 425 (6954): 172–174. doi:10.1038/nature01871. 
    • Burrows, C.; et al.. The diet of moas based on gizzard contents samples from Pyramid Valley, North Canterbury, and Scaifes Lagoon, Lake Wanaka, Otago. Records of the Canterbury Museum. 1981, 9: 309–336. 
    • Dieffenbach, E. Travels in New Zealand II. London: John Murray. 1843: 195. 
    • Gill, BJ. Eggshell characteristics of moa eggs (Aves: Dinornithiformes). Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 2007, 37: 139–150. 
    • Hartree, WH. A preliminary report on the nesting habits of moas in the East Coast of the North Island.. Notornis. 1999, 46: 457–460. 
    • Hill, H. The Moa—Legendary, Historical and Geographical: Why and When the Moa disappeared. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 1913, 46: 330. 
    • Holdaway, R. N.; Jacomb, C. Rapid Extinction of the Moas (Aves: Dinornithiformes): Model, Test, and Implications. Science. 2000, 287 (5461): 2250–2254. doi:10.1126/science.287.5461.2250. PMID 10731144. 
    • Horrocks, M.; et al.. Plant remains in coprolites: diet of a subalpine moa (Dinornithiformes) from southern New Zealand. Emu. 2004, 104: 149–156. 
    • Huynen, Leon J.; Millar, Craig D.; Scofield, R. P. and Lambert, David M. Nuclear DNA sequences detect species limits in ancient moa. Nature. 2003, 425 (6954): 175–178. doi:10.1038/nature01838. 
    • Millener, P. R. And then there were twelve: the taxonomic status of Anomalopteryx oweni (Aves: Dinornithidae). Notornis. 1982, 29: 165–170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030009. 
    • Polack, J. S. New Zealand: Being a Narrative of Travels and Adventures During a Residence in that Country Between the Years 1831 and 1837 I. London: Richard Bentley. 1838: 303, 307. 
    • Turvey, Samuel T.; Green, Owen R. and Holdaway, Richard N. Cortical growth marks reveal extended juvenile development in New Zealand moa. Nature. 2005, 435 (7044): 940–943. doi:10.1038/nature03635. 
    • Wood, JR. Moa gizzard content analyses: further information on the diet of Dinornis robustus and Emeus crassus, and the first evidence for the diet of Pachyornis elephantopus (Aves: Dinornithiformes).. Records of the Canterbury Museum. 2007, 21: 27–39. 
    • Wood, JR. Moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) nesting material from rockshelters in the semi-arid interior of South Island, New Zealand.. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 2008, 38: 115–129. 
    • Worthy, Trevor H.; Holdaway, Richard N. The Lost World of the Moa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 2002. ISBN 0253340349. 

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