紐西蘭籍唐人

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
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紐西蘭籍唐人,或者就咁叫紐西蘭唐人,係有紐西蘭國籍唐人。呢班唐人,好多時都走難或者搵食移民到紐西蘭,最後落地生根,入藉紐西蘭。佢哋響紐西蘭各族之中排第五大。

最早一批有紀錄嘅移民,係由廣東來嘅。佢來係趁1860年代掏金熱嘅呢度金山,佢哋唔少人都喺但尼丁落戶,所以唐人都集中響呢度。2004年選市長,Peter Chin (Chin Wing Ho)就係唐人。其實紐西蘭藉唐人可以分為兩批,一批係早年移民,另一批係1980年以後來嘅。

2006年人口統計,唐人佔人口3.7%,係亞洲人之中最多人,佔當地亞洲人42%。而2001年人口普查,七成半唐人都係唔係紐西蘭出世。2002年,紐西蘭政府同唐人道過歉,皆因佢成個世紀前,向唐人徵重稅[1]

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早年移民[編輯]

1865年,紐西蘭Otago地方帶金礦要搵人挖,就喺廣東一帶招礦工,呢批就係第一批移民。之不過呢批人飽受歧視,皆因佢西同歐洲人爭,同埋佢哋樣似係過客,唔似忠於紐西蘭[2]。雖然有多人信紐西蘭有類似澳洲白澳政策,其實紐西蘭根本無咁嘅政策,早年使亦都大開中門畀太平洋各島民移來紐西蘭[3]。之不過,響1880年代,政治上有排華心態,所以就有紐西蘭人頭稅出現,即係Poll Tax。呢種稅係針對唐人移民而設。不過,呢個時候就算有官方設限,唐人都一樣發大到佢自己個圈子,尤其係佢哋喺二次大戰前夕,可以以難民為由,由廣東接佢哋妻兒仔乸過來。呢種一個"賴"一個嘅移民方法,一直用到中國共產黨接管廣東為止。呢批人同子孫,就畀人叫老一輩移民,家下喺唐人之中佔少數。

二次大戰後[編輯]

唐山以外嘅唐人,1960年代到1980年代,就成為當地另一個唐人來源。佢哋因為高綿老撾越南衝突同動亂而淪為難民來到紐西蘭。而英聯邦地方,好似香港馬來西亞星架坡嘅唐人專業人士,同埋撒摩亞嘅唐人勞工,都大約喺1970年代來到紐西蘭。

1987年到1996年,紐西蘭改咗移民政策,唔少香港同臺灣嘅人都來做商業、投資同專業移民。呢個時間係同有好多亞洲人來咗,當中有唔少係東亞東南亞唐人。呢個時間因為有好多大事令到移民多咗,好似六四事件同埋蘇哈托落台等等。

近年事件[編輯]

The nationalist New Zealand First Party fought the 1996 general election on an anti-immigration and very thinly veiled 'anti-Asian' platform [6], winning the balance of power and altering immigration policy towards skills-based immigration. From the late 1990s to the 2000s, skilled migrants from Mainland China became the new significant demographic group of Chinese immigrants.

國際學生[編輯]

Mainland Chinese in New Zealand also include a substantial population of international students completing tertiary qualifications. These students, viewed by some as temporary residents, are often socially isolated from both mainstream and Chinese New Zealander society. There has been media reports of these groups facing victimisation from within their own communities [4] as well as from the population as a whole, and as being involved in Asian crime syndicates. Similarly, 1.5 generation Hong Kong migrant youths who engaged in low-level criminal activity in the 1990s, were also mistakenly considered to be professional 'Triads' by much of the non-Chinese public at that time. [5]

However, despite much speculation, the political and administrative status of Chinese international students as non-residents has hampered the undertaking of verifiable research about their health, societal wellbeing or their actual level of involvement in crime.

人口[編輯]

成份[編輯]

As of the most recent census, the majority of the overseas-born Chinese were under 25 years of age, and 12% had lived in New Zealand for less than one year. The median age of the Chinese ethnic group in New Zealand is younger than the national average.

就業[編輯]

According to the 2001 Census, New Zealand-born Chinese had a higher median income (NZ$20,200) than other New Zealanders (NZ$18,500), but overseas-born Chinese New Zealanders had a median income less than half of the national median (NZ$7,900).

According to the 2006 Social Report (New Zealand Ministry of Social Development), based on the 2005 Household Labour Force Survey, the 'Asian and other' category displayed the second-highest level of unemployment after New Zealand's indigenous people (the Māori) and the highest level of underemployment. Possibly reflecting the asset-rich status of migrants as well as their barriers to employment, the 'Asian and other' category was simultaneously one of the most income-poor ethnic categories in the country while also being the ethnic category with the highest access to the internet. (Note: At this time, the 'Other' ethnic groups (Middle Eastern, African and Latin American) comprised less than 1% of the population, and the 'Asian' groups approximately 9%.)

出名嘅人[編輯]

政治[編輯]

  • Pansy Wong, New Zealand's first ethnic Chinese MP and first Asian MP, 1970s Generation Hong Kong migrant New Zealander of Shanghai heritage
  • Peter Chin, Mayor of Dunedin, 'Old Generation' Cantonese New Zealander
  • Meng Foon, Mayor of Gisborne , 'Old Generation' Cantonese New Zealander

藝術,運動[編輯]

記者、作家同advocates[編輯]

  • Mai Chen, prominent constitutional lawyer, Chair of the short-lived Pan Asian Congress of 2002, 1970s generation and 1.5 generation Taiwanese migrant New Zealander
  • Derek Cheng, reporter for the New Zealand Herald, second generation New Zealander of Hong Kong Chinese parentage.
  • Manying Ip, Associate-Professor of the Auckland University School of Asian Studies, community spokesperson during the 'Asian Invasion' 1990s, and author and editor of numerous seminal texts on Chinese people in New Zealand. 1970s 1st Generation Hong Kong migrant New Zealander. [8]
  • Errol Kiong, reporter for Radio New Zealand and the New Zealand Herald, first generation migrant New Zealander and Malaysian Chinese.
  • Tze Ming Mok, cultural commentator, blogger and literary writer; second generation New Zealander of Chinese Singaporean and Malaysian parentage. Leader of a march against white supremacists in Wellington 2004. Editor of the May 2006 issue of Landfall, a New Zealand literary journal [9].
  • Lincoln Tan, journalist and columnist; first generation migrant New Zealander and Peranakan Singaporean. Leader of a march against white supremacists in Christchurch 2004. [10]
  • Alison Wong, poet
  • Gilbert Wong, New Zealand's most senior Chinese journalist, for many years New Zealand's only prominent Chinese journalist, Old Generation Cantonese.
  • Steven Young, key figure and leader in the Old Generation Chinese community associations, specifically the Wellington Chinese Association. Known for bucking the 'model minority' impulses of the Old Generation community in the 1990s by speaking out against the New Zealand First Party, for which he was expelled from the Wellington Chinese Association, only to return as its President in later years. Web-archiver of numerous resources on the Old Generation communities. [11]
  • Jack Yan, graphic designer and publisher of fashion magazine Lucire, 1.5 generation Hong Kong migrant New Zealander.

參攷[編輯]

  1. [1]
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  3. [3]
  4. [4]
  5. [5]

出面網頁[編輯]