美國獨立宣言

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第一份印刷版嘅美國獨立宣言

美國獨立宣言(The United States Declaration of Independence)係份喺一七七六年七月四號簽署發表嘅宣言,公告北美十三個殖民地同大英帝國決裂,列出英王佐治三世點衰搞到佢哋要獨立。

獨立宣言嘅重要,唔單止係宣佈獨立,入面嘅「人人平等」概念(All men are created equal)亦係後來內戰同民權運動中嘅重要理念。

內文[編輯]

原文[編輯]

畫家筆下當年簽署宣言嘅情景

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.

Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such disolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

  • For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;
  • For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States;
  • For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world;
  • For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent;
  • For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury;
  • For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences;
  • For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies;
  • For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
  • For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honour.

譯文[編輯]

特別版兩美元紙幣背面嘅獨立宣言簽署儀式

喺有關人類嘅事務發展過程中,當一個民族必須解除其同另一個民族之間嘅政治聯繫,而且喺世界各國之間依照自然法則以及上帝嘅意旨,接受獨立平等嘅地位嘅時候,出於對人類輿論嘅尊重,必須將佢哋唔可以唔獨立嘅原因講出嚟俾人知。

我哋認為下面呢啲真理係唔使講都好明顯嘅: 人人生出嚟都係平等嘅,造物者賦予佢哋一啲唔能夠俾人剝奪嘅權利,其中包括生命權、自由權同埋追求幸福嘅權利。為咗保障呢啲權利,人類先至會建立政府。而政府嘅正當權力,係需要經被治理者嘅同意而產生嘅。當任何形式嘅政府破壞呢啲目標嘅話,人民就有權改變或廢除咗佢,再建立過一個新嘅政府、奠基嘅原則、或者其組織權力嘅方式,務使人民認為唯有咁先係最可能獲得佢哋嘅安全同埋幸福。為咗慎重起見,成立多年嘅政府,係唔應該由於輕微同短暫嘅原因而變嘅。過去嘅一切經驗都講明咗,任何苦難,只要忍得過嘅,人類都寧願容忍,而唔會為咗本身嘅權益就廢除佢哋已經習慣咗好耐嘅政府。但係,當一連串濫用職權同埋巧取豪奪嘅事件係咁發生,證明呢個政府企圖專制統治佢嘅人民,咁人民就有權利,亦有義務去推翻呢個政府,為未來嘅安全建立新嘅保障——呢個就係呢啲殖民地過去逆來順受嘅情況,同時又係佢哋而家唔改變以前政府制度唔得嘅原因。當今大英帝國嘅歷史,就係接連不斷咁去傷天害理同埋巧取豪奪嘅歷史。呢啲暴行嘅唯一目標,就係想喺呢啲地方建立專制暴政。為咗證明我哋唔係吹水,而家我哋向公正嘅世人宣布下列事實:

佢唔肯批准對公眾利益最有益、最必要嘅法律。

佢禁止佢嘅總督批准迫切而極為必要嘅法律,一唔係就將呢啲法律擱置,等佢同意;而一旦呢啲法律俾佢擱置,佢就當完全無咗件事咁唔理。

佢唔肯批准便利廣大地區人民嘅其他法律,除非嗰啲人肯放棄自己喺立法機關嘅代表權;但呢個權利對佢哋有無法估量嘅價值,而且只有暴君先會怕人民有呢個權利。

佢要各州嘅立法團體去埋啲無雷公咁遠嘅地方開會,唯一目的就係令人哋走到暈陀陀,聽晒佢話。

佢係咁解散各州嘅議會,因為呢啲議會硬係抗議他侵犯人民嘅權利。

佢解散咗各州議會之後,又長期唔俾人哋選新議會;但係立法權係唔可能話取消就取消嘅,因此一般人民照行使呢項權力。當時各州仍然處於危險嘅境地,既有外來侵略之患,又有發生內亂之憂。

佢竭力抑制我哋各州增加人囗;為此目的,佢阻撓我哋通過「外國人入籍法」,唔批准人哋鼓勵外國人移居各州嘅法律,並提高分配新土地嘅條件。

佢拒絕批准建立司法權力嘅法律,藉以阻撓推行司法工作。

佢將法官嘅任期、薪金數額同幾時出糧,完全變成佢話乜就乜嘅地步。

佢建立新嘅官署,派遣大批官員騷擾我哋啲人民,重拎晒人民必要嘅生活物質。

佢喺和平時期,未經我哋同意,就喺我哋屋企駐軍。

佢力圖令軍隊獨立於民政之外,並凌駕於民政之上。

佢同某些人勾結埋一齊將我們擺喺一種唔適合我們而且我哋法律唔承認嘅管轄體制之下。佢重批准嗰班人炮製各種偽法案嚟達到以下目的:

  • 喺我哋屋企駐紮大批武裝部隊;
  • 用假審訊嚟包庇呢啲人,佢哋殺咗我哋啲居民仍然逍遙法外;
  • 切斷我哋同世界各地嘅貿易;
  • 未經我哋同意便向我哋強行徵稅;
  • 喺好多案件中剝奪我哋享有陪審制嘅權益;
  • 編造罪名押送我哋到海外去受審;
  • 在一個州隔間廢除英國嘅自由法制,在嗰度建立專制政府,並擴大該州嘅疆界,企圖搞到嗰個州變成樣板同埋得心應手嘅工具,以便向呢度各個殖民地推行同樣嘅極權統治;
  • 取消我哋嘅憲法,廢除我哋最寶貴嘅法律,並且根本上改變我哋各州政府嘅形式;
  • 中止我哋自己嘅立法機關所行使嘅權力,並宣稱佢有權就一切事宜為我哋制定法律。

佢宣布我哋唔係佢應該保護嘅人民,並且向我哋開戰,放棄咗喺呢度嘅政務。

佢喺我哋嘅海域大肆掠奪,蹂躪我哋嘅沿海地區,焚燒我哋嘅城鎮,殘害我哋人民嘅生命。

佢而家係咁運送大批外國傭兵嚟呢度屠殺、破壞同埋肆虐,呢啲衰嘢已經好耐,佢嘅殘酷同卑劣甚至喺最野蠻嘅時代都好難搵。佢完全唔配做一個文明國家嘅元首。

佢喺公海上俘虜我哋嘅同胞,強迫佢哋打自己嘅國家,成為殘殺自己親人同朋友嘅創子手,或者死於自己親人朋友手下。

佢喺我哋呢度煽動內亂,並且唆擺嗰啲殘酷無情、重未開化嘅印第安人嚟殺掠我哋嘅居民;而眾所周知,印第安人嘅作戰規律係男女老幼一律格殺勿論嘅。

喺呢啲壓迫嘅每一階段中,我哋都用咗最謙卑嘅言辭請求改善;但係屢次請求所得到嘅答覆係屢次遭受損害。一個君主,當佢嘅品格已打上咗暴君行為嘅烙印嘅話,唔配做自由人民嘅統治者。

我哋唔係唔顧我們英國嘅弟兄。我哋成日提醒佢哋,係佢哋嘅立法機關企圖加啲無理嘅管轄權喺我哋頭上。我哋都曾經將我哋移民過嚟呢邊喺呢度定居嘅情形話俾佢哋聽。我哋曾經向佢哋嘅正義感同雅量呼籲,我哋懇求佢哋念在同種同宗份上,棄絕呢啲掠奪行為,以免影響彼此往來嘅關係。但係佢哋都唔聽。因此,我哋實在唔同佢哋脫離關係,並且以對待世界上其他民族一樣嘅態度對待佢哋:打我哋嘅就係敵人;幫我哋嘅就係朋友。

因此,我哋,喺大陸會議下集會嘅亞美利堅合眾國嘅代表,以各殖民地嘅善良人民嘅名義,經佢哋嘅授權,向全世界最崇高嘅正義呼籲並說明我哋嘅意向。同時鄭重宣布:

呢啲聯合一致嘅殖民地從此就係自由同獨立嘅國家,並且以佢哋嘅權利嚟講亦一定係自由同獨立嘅國家,佢哋取消一切對英國王室效忠嘅義務,佢哋同大不列顛國家之間嘅一切政治關係從此全部斷絕,而且必須斷絕;作為自由獨立嘅國家,佢哋完全有權宣戰、締和、結盟、通商同埋採取獨立國家有權採取嘅一切行動。

為咗支持這篇宣言,我哋堅決信賴上帝嘅庇佑,以我哋嘅生命、財產、同埋我哋神聖嘅名譽,彼此宣誓。

簽署人[編輯]

當年簽署宣言嘅場地—費城議事廳

56名簽署宣言嘅與會代表依所代表(排名由北而南):

  • 新罕布什爾:約西亞·巴列特、威廉·衛普、馬修·松頓
  • 麻薩諸塞:山繆·亞當斯、約翰·亞當斯、約翰·漢考克、羅伯特·崔特·潘恩、艾爾布里吉·傑利
  • 羅德島州:史帝芬·霍普金斯、威廉·艾勒里
  • 康涅狄格:羅渣·謝爾曼、山繆·杭丁頓、威廉·威廉斯、奧利佛·渥寇特
  • 紐約:威廉·佛洛依德、菲獵·李維斯頓、法蘭西斯·路易斯、路易斯·莫里斯
  • 新澤西:理查·史塔克頓、約翰·維斯朋、法蘭西斯·霍普金斯、約翰·哈特、亞伯拉罕·克拉克
  • 賓夕凡尼亞:羅伯特·莫里斯、班傑明·拉許、班傑明·富蘭克林、約翰·莫頓、佐治·克萊謨、詹姆斯·史密夫、喬治·泰勒、詹姆斯·威爾森、佐治·羅斯
  • 特拉華:佐治·瑞德、凱撒·羅德內、湯瑪斯·麥肯
  • 馬里蘭:山繆·卻斯、威廉·帕卡、湯瑪斯·史東、卡羅頓的查爾斯·卡羅
  • 維珍尼亞:喬治·懷勒、理查·亨利·李、湯瑪斯·傑佛遜、班哲明·哈里森五世、小湯瑪斯·尼爾森、法蘭西斯·萊富特·李、卡特·布瑞斯頓
  • 北卡羅萊納:威廉霍普、約瑟夫希維斯、約翰潘恩
  • 南卡羅萊納:愛德華·羅特里吉、湯瑪斯·黑華、小湯瑪斯·林區、亞瑟·米竇頓
  • 佐治亞:巴頓·格威內特、李曼·候爾、佐治·華頓

連結[編輯]