人因工程

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢
一個人坐喺電腦前面做嘢嘅圖解;人因工程會思考圖解入面嘅眾多變數受乜嘢影響同埋會對個人嘅做嘢效率產生乜嘢影響。

人因工程粵拼jan4 jan1 gung1 cing4英文ergonomics),粵文又有叫人機工程或者人體工學,係考慮人類因素human factors)嚟設計產品同系統嘅一個工程學領域:一個人因工程師會參考心理學生理學等領域嘅知識,諗吓人類認知能力同生理結構受乜嘢限制,同埋呢啲限制會點影響一件產品或者一個系統嘅使用;然後佢就會按呢啲考量,改善產品同系統嘅設計[1][2]。人因工程嘅簡單例子有[3][4]

  • 設計張書檯嗰陣,諗吓用張書檯嘅人嘅身高係點,張書檯會唔會高得滯,搞到個人坐姿唔好(生理考慮);
  • 設計個鍵盤嗰陣,諗吓個鍵盤有幾斜,會唔會令個用家焗住要拗彎手腕,長遠對用家嘅手腕健康唔好(生理考慮);
  • 設計個用嚟做航空交通控制嘅系統嗰陣,諗吓個系統傳資訊嘅率會唔會超越控制員嘅注意力極限同搞到控制員犯錯率上升(心理考慮)[5]

... 等等。

人因工程係一個理論同實踐並重嘅領域:一方面,人因工程師會嘗試建立用嚟描述人類同機械之間嘅互動嘅理論模型,途中用到多個理論領域嘅知識-包括認知科學領域(心理學同神經科學等)同自然科學(生理學同力學等),例子有用古典力學(classical mechanics)分析一個人使用一部機械嗰陣身體各部份會受幾多,同埋呢啲力會唔會大到足以對嗰個人嘅身體造成傷害[6][7];另一方面,人因工程師又係一個實用嘅專業,成日會有人出錢請人因工程師幫手做產品或者系統嘅設計,例如有好多工廠都會請人因工程師度工作空間要點設計先可以令做嘢效率最大化[8]

概論[編輯]

定位[編輯]

國際人因工程學會(International Ergonomics Association,IEA)係噉樣定義人因工程嘅[8]

原版英文:"The word ergonomics - "the science of work" is derived from the Greek ergon (work) and nomos (laws). Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data, and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance."
粵文翻譯:「Ergonomics」呢個(英文)字-「工作嘅科學」噉解-嚟自希臘文嘅「ergon」(工作)同「nomos」(法則)。人因工程(或者人類因素)係嘗試了解人類同系統元件之間嘅互動嘅科學領域,以及運用理論、原則、數據同方法嚟設計(系統)務求將人類嘅福祉同整體系統表現最佳化嘅專業。

歷史背景[編輯]

人體力學[編輯]

人體測量[編輯]

人體生理[編輯]

人類工作能力[編輯]

人類認知能力[編輯]

睇埋:認知心理學

工作設計[編輯]

人機互動[編輯]

內文: 人機互動

睇埋[編輯]

參考文獻[編輯]

  • Berlin, C., & Adams, C. (2017). Production ergonomics: Designing work systems to support optimal human performance. Ubiquity Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/bbe.
  • Bridger, R. (2008). Introduction to ergonomics. Crc Press.

[編輯]

  1. Bridger, R. (2008). Introduction to ergonomics. Crc Press.
  2. ISO 6385 defines "ergonomics" and the "study of human factors" similarly, as the "scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles and methods to design to optimize overall human performance."
  3. Examples of Ergonomics. Ergonomics-Info.com.
  4. Wilson, J. R. (2000). Fundamentals of ergonomics in theory and practice. Applied ergonomics, 31(6), 557-567.
  5. Endsley, M. R., & Rodgers, M. D. (1996, October). Attention distribution and situation awareness in air traffic control. In Proceedings of the human factors and ergonomics society annual meeting (Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 82-85). Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.
  6. Schiele, A., & Van Der Helm, F. C. (2006). Kinematic design to improve ergonomics in human machine interaction. IEEE Transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering, 14(4), 456-469.
  7. Riley, V. (1989, October). A general model of mixed-initiative human-machine systems. In Proceedings of the Human Factors Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 124-128). Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.
  8. 8.0 8.1 International Ergonomics Association. What is Ergonomics?. Website. 2020 May.

[編輯]