元宇宙

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢

元宇宙粵拼jyun4 jyu5 zau6英文Metaverse,嚟自 metauniverse 嘅結合)係廿一世紀初興起嘅一個資訊科技諗頭。

根據元宇宙嘅諗頭,任何現實嘅嘢都可以用電腦創造嘅虛擬嘢取代[註 1]:有資訊科技工作者就想建立一個由虛擬實境(VR)同擴張實境(AR)組成嘅虛擬世界,用呢個虛擬世界做互聯網嘅延伸-用家唔淨只可以喺呢個世界裏面郁動,仲有得透過個世界玩遊戲同埋使用第啲互聯網服務,例如網購社交媒體呀噉,做到近乎「完全齋靠個虛擬世界生活」咁滯;元宇宙相關嘅諗頭,好多時仲會結合埋 AI 技術,打算做到(例如)「教部電腦透過 VR 頭罩睇用家眉頭眼額,按用家情緒決定要點樣改變用家體驗[1][2]

網上遊戲第二人生》(Second Life)被人指係元宇宙嘅初型;想像用家戴住 VR 頭罩,由玩家角色對眼嘅角度睇個虛擬世界,仲有得透過呢個世界做(例如)網購社交媒體等嘅第啲日常生活功能。

有唔少資訊科技工作者主張,元宇宙會引起互聯網科技嘅大變。而喺 2021 年,Facebook 嘅創辦人朱克伯格將佢間公司嘅名改做 Meta 平台(Meta Platforms),反映佢開發元宇宙嘅決心,結合電腦科學人機互動等多個領域嘅研究者一齊研發元宇宙。

基礎概念[編輯]

睇埋:人機互動投入科技同埋虛擬世界

元宇宙嘅諗頭可見於 1992 年嘅科幻長篇小說雪崩》(Snow Crash)。據講本小說係噉描述元宇宙嘅:

原版英文:"So Hiro's not actually here at all. He's in a computer-generated universe that his computer is drawing onto his goggles and pumping into his earphones. In the lingo, this imaginary place is known as the Metaverse. Hiro spends a lot of time in the Metaverse."[3]

粵文翻譯:查實阿廣(Hiro)根本唔喺呢度。佢身處喺個電腦產生嘅宇宙裏面,而佢部電腦喺度將個宇宙畫落佢對眼罩度同埋泵落佢對耳筒度。喺行話當中,呢個假想地方叫元宇宙。阿廣花好多時間喺元宇宙裏面(活動)。

原版英文:"He is not seeing real people, of course. This is all a part of the moving illustration drawn by his computer according to specifications coming down the fiber-optic cable. The people are pieces of software called avatars. They are the audiovisual bodies that people use to communicate with each other in the Metaverse."[4]

粵文翻譯:佢(阿廣)當然唔係見緊真嘅人啦。呢啲嘢完全係由佢部電腦按照嚟自光纖線嘅指示畫出嘅郁動插圖(『郁動插圖』比喻虛擬世界嘅圖像)。啲人係叫做『頭像』嘅軟件。佢哋(啲頭像)係啲人用嚟喺元宇宙入面彼此溝通嘅聲畫身體。

涉及技術[編輯]

附圖 1;一個人戴住 VR 頭罩體驗個虛擬世界,個頭罩可以內置腦機介面眼動追蹤等嘅功能。

基礎技術[編輯]

睇埋:延展實境同埋投入感

要做到「令用家完全投入個虛擬世界」,元宇宙起碼要用以下呢啲技術:

... 呀噉。

營銷技術[編輯]

睇埋:網上廣告

元宇宙係個完全由電腦控制嘅虛擬空間。噉即係話,運作元宇宙嘅人可以隨意攞元宇宙入面嘅任何資訊,而呢點可以攞嚟落廣告[7]

  • 眼動追蹤(eye tracking):用嚟探測用家對眼望緊乜,可以用嚟攞到「虛擬世界裏面嘅呢個廣告有幾多人睇」噉嘅資訊;Meta 平台跟住可以將呢啲資訊賣畀第啲企業,畀後者用嚟做落廣告方面嘅商業決策[8]
  • 情感運算(affective computing):假如用家嘅 VR 頭罩能夠探測用家嘅情緒(可以睇吓 HRV 等嘅概念),就可以攞嚟(例如)探知用家對某幅廣告有咩情緒反應,而呢點可以用嚟評估一個廣告係咪有效[9]
  • 大數據:可以用嚟分析用家嘅行為,細至「用咗幾多時間摷有關呢隻呢隻產品嘅資訊」都可以分析。

例如附圖 1 噉:附圖 1 顯示個人戴住 VR 頭罩體驗個虛擬世界;想像如果個虛擬世界係元宇宙,玩家可以透過操作個世界入面嘅物件嚟做網購,而且再想像(例如)個頭罩內置眼動追蹤,識探測用家對眼望緊邊,知用家望緊元宇宙邊忽,將「位用家用咗幾多秒望呢幅呢幅廣告」等嘅數據傳返去 Meta 平台嘅數據庫度。順帶一提,有好多人都係因為「元宇宙太易畀營銷工作者攞數據同埋操弄消費者」,所以唔睇好元宇宙[10]

註釋[編輯]

  1. 直至 2020 年代初,學界仲未對「元宇宙」嘅具體定義有完全一致嘅共識。

睇埋[編輯]

文獻[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. Hollensen, S., Kotler, P., & Opresnik, M. O. (2022). Metaverse the new marketing universe. Journal of Business Strategy.
  2. Kim, J. (2021). Advertising in the metaverse. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 21(3), 141-144.
  3. 1993 (1992 Copyright), Snow Crash by Neal Stephenson, Chapter 3, Quote Page 24, Bantam Books, New York. (Verified with scans).
  4. 1993 (1992 Copyright), Snow Crash by Neal Stephenson, Chapter 5, Quote Page 35 and 36, Bantam Books, New York. (Verified with scans).
  5. Feel the metaverse with your bare hands - using ultrasonic waves. World Economic Forum.
  6. How The Metaverse Will Change Cryptocurrency. Forbes.
  7. All the ways marketing and advertising are shaping the metaverse. Business Insider.
  8. Markopoulos, E., Luimula, M., Calbureanu-Popescu, C., Markopoulos, P., Ranttila, P., Laukkanen, S., ... & Nghia, T. (2021). Neural Network Driven Eye Tracking Metrics and Data Visualization in Metaverse and Virtual Reality Maritime Safety Training. In Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Infocommunications (CogInfoCom) (pp. 537-544). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
  9. Silvennoinen, J. M., & Saariluoma, P. (2021). Affective Mimetics, Emotional Information Space, and Metaverse. JDT, 2(2), 294.
  10. Seems Like Meta Wants To Flood The Metaverse With Ads, Patents Suggest. The Gamer.

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