和音

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
(由和聲跳轉過嚟)
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢
一班人喺度一齊唱歌,對啲聽眾嚟講,佢哋會聽到幾吓音符同時出現。
C 大調嘅 C、E 同 G 一齊響(鋼琴)。

和音粵拼wo6 jam1英文harmony)喺樂理上係指若干個同時出現但音高等特性上有異嘅,同埋聽首音樂嗰個人對呢啲聲嘅感知。亦都可以包埋啲音符喺出現時間上相近得好交關,令聽嘅人覺得呢幾個音符係同時出現嘅:例如係想像一座鋼琴,彈嗰個人一嘢三隻手指同時撳落去中 C、對上嗰個 E 音(E4)同對上嗰個 G 音(G4)呢三個 key 嗰度,令到呢幾個音符一齊出現,就可以算係一吓和音[註 1][1]

和音可以包埋琶音(arpeggio)等嘅分解和弦,分解和弦意思係指可能嗰柞音符實質上唔係同時出現嘅,但佢哋之間嘅時間差好短,令到聽嘅人覺得佢哋係同時出現,或者最少將佢哋視為同一嚿物體,呢種情況常見於或者小號等唔能夠同時發出多過一個音符嘅樂器[2]

和弦[編輯]

內文:和弦

和弦(chord)係和音嘅一個單位,指三個或者以上嘅音符俾聽嘅人覺得佢哋同時出現。和弦係作曲上好重要嘅一樣嘢,例如和弦行進(chord progression)係指一連串嘅和弦,同埋啲和弦點樣隨時間而變化,例如下面呢串和弦行進係好出名嘅 C 大調 IV–V–I 行進(IV–V–I progression)[註 2][3]


    {
      \new PianoStaff <<
        \new Staff <<
            \new Voice \relative c'' {
                \stemUp \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
                c2 b c1
                }
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                \stemDown
                f2 d e1
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                \stemUp \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
                a2 g g1
                }
            \new Voice \relative c {
                \stemDown
                f,2_\markup { \concat { \translate #'(-4 . 0) { "C:  IV" \hspace #2.2 "V" \hspace #5.3 "I" } } }
                g c1 \bar "||"
                }
            >>
    >> }

眾體行進(omnibus progression)就係指一段聲入面啲和弦嘅音符慢慢噉向相反方向行進-即係話有條和弦,條和弦嗰啲音符喺音高上隨時間彼此之間愈嚟愈近或者愈嚟愈遠,好似係以下呢段嘢嘅下五線譜噉,就見到兩個音符之間愈嚟愈遠[4]


    {
      \new PianoStaff <<
        \new Staff <<
            \new Voice \relative c'' {
                \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 2 = 80
                \stemUp \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
                \partial2 g2 g aes a! bes b!1 c
                }
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                \stemDown
                \partial2 e2 f f f f f1 e
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                \stemUp \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
                \partial2 c2 d d d d d1 e
                }
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                \stemDown
                \partial2 c2_\markup { \translate #'(-0.5 . 0) { \concat { "C" \hspace #3.5 "G" \combine \raise #1 \small 6 \lower #1 \small 5 \hspace #2 "B♭" \raise #1 \small { "7" } \hspace #1 "Dm" \combine \raise #1 \small 6 \lower #1 \small 4 \hspace #1 "B♭" \combine \raise #1 \small 4 \lower #1 \small 2 \hspace #3 "G" \raise #1 \small "7" \hspace #6 "C" } } }
                b bes a aes g1 c, \bar "||"
                }
            >>
    >> }

樂理上嘅研究會將唔同嘅和弦行進分門別類,包含思考「邊啲音符一齊響傾向會好聽」或者「邊啲和音傾向令聽嘅人產生乜嘢情緒」呀噉[5],而作曲嘅人會運用呢啲知識,作出能夠達到自己想要嘅效果嘅樂曲。順帶一提,唔同曲種偏好嘅和弦行進都唔同[3],例如眾體行進喺西洋古典樂裏面成日都見到[6],而另一方面,世界上有啲地區嘅傳統音樂反而係完全唔會使用和弦同和弦行進嘅[7]

註釋[編輯]

  1. 三個音符疊埋一齊而成嘅和弦就係所謂嘅三和弦
  2. 簡單講,一款和弦行進個名嗰啲羅馬數字反映咗款行進嘅每個音符喺音階當中嘅位置。

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. Ronald Pen, Introduction to Music (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992): 81. ISBN 0-07-038068-6. "A triad is a set of notes consisting of three notes built on successive intervals of a third."
  2. Kamien, Roger (2008). Music: An Appreciation, p.43. McGraw Hill.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Benward & Saker (2003). Music: In Theory and Practice, Vol. I, pp. 67, 359. 7th Edition. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0."A chord is a harmonic unit with at least three different tones sounding simultaneously." "A combination of three or more pitches sounding at the same time."
  4. Yellin, Victor Fell. The Omnibus Idea. Warren, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 1998.
  5. Dahlhaus, Carl. Gjerdingen, Robert O. trans. (1990). Studies in the Origin of Harmonic Tonality, p. 141. Princeton University Press.
  6. Telesco, P. J. (1998). Enharmonicism and the Omnibus Progression in Classical-Era Music. Music Theory Spectrum, 20(2), 242-279.
  7. Malm, William P. (1996). Music Cultures of the Pacific, the Near East, and Asia, 3rd edition.

[編輯]