心流

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一個人聚精會神打緊隻籃球遊戲;佢似乎處於相當程度嘅心流狀態。

心流體驗粵拼sam1 lau4 tai2 jim6英文flow experience),通常簡稱心流psychological flow / flow),係一種特殊嘅心理狀態。經歷心流嘅人通常係做緊某樣要求技術嘅作業,嗰樣作業為佢提供到一定程度嘅挑戰,唔係太易又唔係太難(即係所謂嘅「適度挑戰」,optimal challenge),於是令佢進入一個高度專注嘅狀態,感覺好享受嗰樣作業。呢個狀態會維持一段時間,直至件作業結束為止[1]。心流可以由好多唔同嘅作業引致,包括運動[2]畫畫[3]、捉[4]以及打機[5]等嘅活動都可以引起心流(只要件作業能夠為做嗰個人提供適度挑戰)。

心流有以下嘅特徵[1][6]

  • 極度嘅專注;
  • 自我意識減弱;
  • 覺得有信心能夠控制發生緊乜事;
  • 覺得時間好似過得好快噉;
  • 覺得「好似同件作業結合咗埋一齊」噉;
  • 覺得件作業好有價值。

一件引致心流嘅作業通常有以下嘅特徵(可以睇埋有意義嘅玩):

  1. 有明確嘅目的
  2. 會對做嗰個人俾清晰嘅回輸(feedback);
  3. 適度挑戰。

實驗性嘅心流研究上,最常用嚟人工噉引起心流嘅方法係曉調控自身難度嘅遊戲:想像一個研究者想做實驗研究心流,一種常見嘅做法係研究者寫個簡單嘅遊戲程式,令隻遊戲曉調整自己嘅難度,從而做到為玩家提供適度挑戰嘅效果,然後研究者就可以靠呢個遊戲程式引起心流,跟住研究心流呢種心理狀態-例:個研究者搵班受試者返實驗室,要佢哋一路玩一隻曉調整自己難度嘅遊戲,一路用腦電圖(EEG)等嘅方法量度受試者嘅活動,靠噉研究心流狀態同乜嘢腦活動有關[7]。因為心流體驗往往會令經歷者變到好鍾意做引起心流嗰件作業,所以對心流嘅研究喺教育學管理學遊戲設計等嘅領域上都有用[8]

生理研究[編輯]

目前嘅研究指,心流狀態係一個有少少心理壓力嘅狀態:例如有研究發現,一個人喺進入心流狀態嗰時心率變化度(heart-rate variability,HRV)會下降(HRV 下降一般表示個人感受到壓力)[9]

睇埋[編輯]

參考文獻[編輯]

  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Beyond boredom and anxiety. Jossey-Bass.
  • Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1996), Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention, New York: Harper Perennial, ISBN 978-0-06-092820-9
  • Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1996), Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement With Everyday Life, Basic Books, ISBN 978-0-465-02411-7 (a popular exposition emphasizing technique)
  • Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (2003), Good Business: Leadership, Flow, and the Making of Meaning, New York: Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-14-200409-8
  • Egbert, Joy (2003), "A Study of Flow Theory in the Foreign Language Classroom", The Modern Language Journal, 87 (4): 499–518, doi:10.1111/1540-4781.00204
  • Jackson, Susan A. & Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1999), Flow in Sports: The Keys to Optimal Experiences and Performances, Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers, ISBN 978-0-88011-876-7
  • Mainemelis, Charalampos (2001), "When the Muse Takes It All: A Model for the Experience of Timelessness in Organizations", The Academy of Management Review, 26 (4): 548–565, doi:10.2307/3560241, JSTOR 3560241
  • Martins, J., Costa, C., Oliveira, T., Gonçalves, R., & Branco, F. (2019). How smartphone advertising influences consumers' purchase intention (PDF). Journal of Business Research, 94, 378-387.

[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, I. S. (Eds.). (1992). Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness. Cambridge university press.
  2. Jackson, S. A. (1996). Toward a conceptual understanding of the flow experience in elite athletes. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 67(1), 76-90.
  3. Keller, J., & Blomann, F. (2008). Locus of control and the flow experience: An experimental analysis. European Journal of Personality: Published for the European Association of Personality Psychology, 22(7), 589-607.
  4. Tozman, T., Zhang, Y. Y., & Vollmeyer, R. (2017). Inverted U-shaped function between flow and cortisol release during chess play. Journal of Happiness Studies, 18(1), 247-268.
  5. Klasen, M., Weber, R., Kircher, T. T., Mathiak, K. A., & Mathiak, K. (2012). Neural contributions to flow experience during video game playing. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 7(4), 485-495.
  6. Nakamura, J.; Csikszentmihályi, M. (20 December 2001). "Flow Theory and Research". In C. R. Snyder Erik Wright, and Shane J. Lopez (ed.). Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University Press. pp. 195–206.
  7. Tozman, T., Magdas, E. S., MacDougall, H. G., & Vollmeyer, R. (2015). Understanding the psychophysiology of flow: A driving simulator experiment to investigate the relationship between flow and heart rate variability. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 408-418.
  8. Kiili, K. (2005). On educational game design: Building blocks of flow experience. Tampere University of Technology.
  9. Tozman, T., Magdas, E. S., MacDougall, H. G., & Vollmeyer, R. (2015). Understanding the psychophysiology of flow: A driving simulator experiment to investigate the relationship between flow and heart rate variability. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 408-418.

[編輯]