心流

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢
一個人聚精會神打緊隻籃球遊戲;佢似乎處於相當程度嘅心流狀態。

心流體驗粵拼sam1 lau4 tai2 jim6英文flow experience),簡稱心流psychological flow / flow),係一種俾人譽為「最佳體驗」(optimal experience)嘅心理狀態。經歷心流嘅人通常係做緊某樣要求技術嘅活動,而嗰樣活動為佢提供一定程度嘅挑戰,唔係太易又唔係太難(即係所謂嘅適度挑戰,optimal challenge),佢就會一路做一路進入一個高度專注嘅狀態,感覺好享受嗰樣活動,一路直至活動結束為止,呢個高度專注同愉快嘅狀態就係所謂嘅心流[1]。研究證實咗,心流可以由好多唔同嘅活動引起,包括運動[2]畫畫[3]、捉[4]以及打機[5]等嘅活動都可以引起心流-只要嗰樣活動能夠為做嗰個人提供適度挑戰就得。

心流體驗吸引咗多個領域嘅研究者關注:一方面,心理學神經科學認知科學(cognitive science)領域有興趣想知一個人處於心流狀態嗰陣個發生緊乜嘢事[6];另一方面,心流往往能夠令一個人覺得好享受引起心流嗰樣活動,以及想進一步提升自己喺嗰樣活動上嘅技術[7],所以對心流嘅研究亦都有助於思考點樣幫人學習同享受一樣活動-而呢啲課題對於教育學管理學遊戲設計等嘅領域嚟講都相當有用[8][9]

實驗性嘅心流研究上,最常用嚟人工噉引起心流嘅方法係曉調控自身難度嘅遊戲:最能夠引起心流嘅係適度挑戰;想像一個研究者想做實驗研究心流,佢可以寫個簡單嘅電子遊戲程式,令隻遊戲曉按玩家嘅能力調整自己嘅難度[註 1],從而做到為玩家提供適度挑戰嘅效果,然後研究者就可以靠呢個遊戲程式引起心流,跟住就研究心流呢種心理狀態-例:個研究者搵班受試者返實驗室,要佢哋一路玩一隻曉調整自己難度嘅遊戲,一路用腦電圖(EEG)等嘅方法量度受試者嘅活動,靠噉研究心流狀態同乜嘢腦活動有關[10]

特徵[編輯]

定義上,心流有以下嘅特徵[1][11]

  • 極度嘅專注,而且經歷心流嗰個人通常會話覺得唔使點樣花費精神就做到呢樣嘢(毫不費力嘅注意力;effortless attention)[註 2][6][12]
  • 多個要有意識做嘅認知過程停止[6]
    • 自我意識減弱;
    • 覺得有信心能夠控制發生緊乜事;
    • 覺得時間好似過得好快噉;
    • 覺得「好似同件工作結合咗埋一齊」噉;
  • 覺得件工作好有價值。

一件引致心流嘅工作通常有以下嘅特徵(可以睇埋有意義嘅玩):

  1. 有明確嘅目的
  2. 會對做嗰個人俾清晰嘅回輸(feedback);
  3. 適度挑戰(optimal challenge)[13]

操作化[編輯]

「難度」(difficulty)呢個概念可以用好多唔同方法操作化(operationalize)。

  • 俄羅斯方塊當中,難度可以用啲磚跌落嚟嘅速度量度。
  • 喺一隻涉及玩家避開敵人嘅遊戲(例如食鬼)當中,難度嘅適當度可以用以下呢個指標量度[14]
    當中 係指玩家每一次玩,要行咗幾多步啲敵人先成功殺死佢, 係玩咗 局之後嘅 平均值, 係喺嗰 局當中 嘅最大值,而 係一個參數

生理研究[編輯]

目前嘅研究指,心流狀態係一個有少少心理壓力嘅狀態:例如有研究發現,一個人喺進入心流狀態嗰時心率變化度(heart-rate variability,HRV)會下降(HRV 下降一般表示個人感受到壓力)[4]

應用[編輯]

玩家玩嗰陣經歷嘅心流可以用嚟評價一隻電子遊戲[15]

註釋[編輯]

  1. 即係個遊戲程式喺玩家表現差嗰陣會降低難度,喺玩家表現好嗰陣會提升難度;睇埋動態難度調控
  2. 呢點同認為「愈係專注就愈需要花費精神先做得到」嘅廿世紀注意力理論唔相容。

睇埋[編輯]

參考文獻[編輯]

  • Abuhamdeh, S. (2020). Investigating the "flow" experience: Key conceptual and operational issues. Frontiers in Psychology.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Beyond boredom and anxiety. Jossey-Bass.
  • Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1996), Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention, New York: Harper Perennial, ISBN 978-0-06-092820-9
  • Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1996), Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement With Everyday Life, Basic Books, ISBN 978-0-465-02411-7 (a popular exposition emphasizing technique).
  • Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (2003), Good Business: Leadership, Flow, and the Making of Meaning, New York: Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-14-200409-8.
  • Dietrich, A., & Stoll, O. (2010). Effortless attention, hypofrontality, and perfectionism (PDF). Effortless attention: A new perspective in the cognitive science of attention and action, 159-178.
  • Ellis, G. D., Freeman, P. A., Jamal, T., & Jiang, J. (2019). A theory of structured experience (PDF). Annals of Leisure Research, 22(1), 97-118.
  • Jackson, Susan A. & Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1999), Flow in Sports: The Keys to Optimal Experiences and Performances, Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers, ISBN 978-0-88011-876-7
  • Mainemelis, Charalampos (2001), "When the Muse Takes It All: A Model for the Experience of Timelessness in Organizations", The Academy of Management Review, 26 (4): 548–565, doi:10.2307/3560241, JSTOR 3560241
  • Martins, J., Costa, C., Oliveira, T., Gonçalves, R., & Branco, F. (2019). How smartphone advertising influences consumers' purchase intention (PDF). Journal of Business Research, 94, 378-387.
  • Tse, D. C., Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2020). Beyond challenge-seeking and skill-building: Toward the lifespan developmental perspective on flow theory (PDF). The Journal of Positive Psychology, 15(2), 171-182.
  • Weber, R., & Fisher, J. T. (2020). Flow. The International Encyclopedia of Media Psychology, 1-5.

[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, I. S. (Eds.). (1992). Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness. Cambridge university press.
  2. Jackson, S. A. (1996). Toward a conceptual understanding of the flow experience in elite athletes. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 67(1), 76-90.
  3. Keller, J., & Blomann, F. (2008). Locus of control and the flow experience: An experimental analysis. European Journal of Personality: Published for the European Association of Personality Psychology, 22(7), 589-607.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Tozman, T., Zhang, Y. Y., & Vollmeyer, R. (2017). Inverted U-shaped function between flow and cortisol release during chess play. Journal of Happiness Studies, 18(1), 247-268.
  5. Klasen, M., Weber, R., Kircher, T. T., Mathiak, K. A., & Mathiak, K. (2012). Neural contributions to flow experience during video game playing. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 7(4), 485-495.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Dietrich, A., & Stoll, O. (2010). Effortless attention, hypofrontality, and perfectionism. Effortless attention: A new perspective in the cognitive science of attention and action, 159-178.
  7. Tse, D. C., Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2020). Beyond challenge-seeking and skill-building: Toward the lifespan developmental perspective on flow theory (PDF). The Journal of Positive Psychology, 15(2), 171-182.
  8. Erhel, S., & Jamet, E. (2019). Improving instructions in educational computer games: Exploring the relations between goal specificity, flow experience and learning outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 91, 106-114.
  9. Kiili, K. (2005). On educational game design: Building blocks of flow experience. Tampere University of Technology.
  10. Tozman, T., Magdas, E. S., MacDougall, H. G., & Vollmeyer, R. (2015). Understanding the psychophysiology of flow: A driving simulator experiment to investigate the relationship between flow and heart rate variability. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 408-418.
  11. Nakamura, J.; Csikszentmihályi, M. (20 December 2001). "Flow Theory and Research". In C. R. Snyder Erik Wright, and Shane J. Lopez (ed.). Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University Press. pp. 195–206.
  12. Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and effort. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  13. Fong, C. J., Zaleski, D. J., & Leach, J. K. (2015). The challenge-skill balance and antecedents of flow: A meta-analytic investigation (PDF). The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(5), 425-446.
  14. Yannakakis, G. N., & Hallam, J. (2007). Towards optimizing entertainment in computer games. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 21(10), 933-971.
  15. Sweetser, P., & Johnson, D. (2019, December). GameFlow and Player Experience Measures: An Initial Comparison of Conceptual Constructs. In Proceedings of the 31st Australian Conference on Human-Computer-Interaction (pp. 317-321).

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