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螢火蟲

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢

Wikipedia:點樣睇生物分類框How to read a taxobox
螢火蟲
呢隻東方螢火蟲(Photinus pyralis) 一路飛一路條尾喺度發光。
呢隻東方螢火蟲Photinus pyralis
一路飛一路條尾喺度發光
有隻螢火蟲喺黑暗當中發光。
有隻螢火蟲喺黑暗當中發光。
物種分類
動物界 Animalia
節足動物門 Arthropoda
昆蟲綱 Insecta
甲蟲目 Coleoptera
亞目 (Subordo): 多食亞目 Polyphaga
螢火蟲科 Lampyridae

螢火蟲粵拼jing4 fo2 cung4英文firefly / lightning bug日文ホタルhotaru學名Lampyridae),用漢字寫又可以寫做熒火蟲,喺廣東話裏面又有被人嗌做「放光蟲[註 1],係甲蟲多食亞目下嘅一個,包含超過 2,000 種物種咁多,主要分佈喺溫帶熱帶嘅地區。佢哋蟲如其名,最出名嘅特徵係好多物種嘅成蟲都識發光[1]

螢火蟲同第啲甲蟲一樣係行完全變態嘅,一世蟲分四個階段:螢火蟲生命一開始嗰陣係,由蛋度孵咗出嚟之後係(個樣同成蟲爭好遠嘅)幼蟲,幼蟲生到咁上下就會結蛹;個蛹過咗若干時間之後,隻成蟲就會由個蛹嗰度捐出嚟;好多種物種嘅螢火蟲啲成蟲都曉發光(螢火),佢哋會用呢啲光嚟求偶[2]-唔同物種嘅螢火蟲,發出嚟嘅光都唔同樣,所以螢火蟲可以靠啲光得知「同自己同種嘅異性螢火蟲喺邊」;亦都有部份嘅螢火蟲啲會特登發放出似第啲種嘅螢火蟲嘅光,想引誘第啲種嘅螢火蟲埋嚟,然後食呢啲螢火蟲公落肚;而無論公定乸,啲螢火蟲通常做完交配繁殖嘅工作之後冇幾耐就會[3]

螢火蟲對人類文化有一定嘅影響:有唔少人都覺得螢火蟲細細隻識發光噉好得意,會作創作品講螢火蟲,例如知步里工作室嘅《再見螢火蟲》就好出名;除此之外,螢火蟲亦都會被人攞嚟做旗艦物種-因為唔少人都鍾意螢火蟲,所以會想保育佢哋,而生態學家就會運用呢點,用「呢笪土地有螢火蟲」嚟做賣點做生態保育上嘅宣傳[4]

基本描述[編輯]

一隻幼蟲噉形嘅螢火蟲乸;佢唔識飛,但個腹部會發光。
喺 2006 年嘅德國一角影到嘅相,幅相曝光咗 30 秒;啲螢火蟲喺度飛嚟飛去搵伴侶。
一幅 2010 年影到嘅相;幅相展示一隻歐洲放光蟲Lampyris noctiluca)幼蟲喺度食緊隻蝸牛
睇埋:甲蟲同埋多食亞目

形態[編輯]

睇埋:幼蟲形乸

喺形態上,螢火蟲有相當嘅內部差異,喺色水、形狀以至大細上都可以幾唔同:螢火蟲多數都呈啡或者綠噉嘅色,而講大細嘅話,最大嘅螢火蟲物種可以去到成 10 cm 咁長[5];螢火蟲有相當嘅兩性異形,即係明顯唔同樣-好多種螢火蟲物種都有幼蟲形乸(larviform female),即係啲成蟲乸個樣生到好似幼蟲噉,通常冇翼唔識飛(唔似得公噉有翼識飛),不過會有一啲幼蟲冇嘅特徵,例如係複眼噉,令到專家(同啲螢火蟲公)能夠分開邊啲係成蟲乸邊啲係幼蟲[6]

多數最出名嘅螢火蟲物種,都係喺夜晚出沒兼且識發光嘅。亦有一部份嘅物種興喺日頭出沒,日頭出沒嘅螢火蟲物種多數唔識發光,除非佢哋係一啲「興日頭活動但會留喺陰暗地方」嘅物種[2]

生命週期[編輯]

內文:完全變態

螢火蟲同第啲甲蟲一樣,係行完全變態嘅,即係話佢哋一世蟲有幼蟲成蟲四個階段[2]

  • :螢火蟲乸交配咗之後,就會搵地方生蛋。佢哋會將受咗精嘅蛋生喺地面或者泥土入面冇幾深嘅地方,一般零舍鍾意潮濕嘅泥土,可以係一粒一粒噉生或者成竇成竇噉生嘅;每隻乸「一次生幾多粒蛋」就視物種而定,據講某啲物種每隻乸可以生到成 500 粒蛋咁多[7];螢火蟲啲蛋通常係波噉形,而有啲物種嘅螢火蟲連蛋都會發光[8]。無論係邊個物種,螢火蟲蛋一般會喺三至四個禮拜內孵化[2][9]
  • 幼蟲:螢火蟲一生出嚟係隻個樣同成蟲好唔同嘅幼蟲:幼蟲嘅主要目標係要猛咁食嘢,儲起啲能量;螢火蟲幼蟲又有被人叫做「放光蟲」,簡眼(唔似得成蟲噉有複眼),冚唪唥都識發光;螢火蟲幼蟲通常夜行同食肉,喺夜晚嗰陣會由泥度捐出嚟獵食蝸牛鼻涕蟲同埋第啲昆蟲,有啲甚至會同類相食[10],而據講有部份物種嘅幼蟲捉到獵物嗰陣時,下顎會直接將消化用嘅液體注入獵物身體(即場消化隻獵物),食落肚之前就令獵物溶化。就係噉,隻幼蟲會一路食嘢儲起能量,經歷幾次嘅脫皮生到咁上下就會結蛹,多數物種都會以幼蟲嘅形態過冬,喺冬天嗰陣會用各種嘅方法保暖,好似係捐落深啲嘅地底度或者匿入去樹皮入面... 呀噉;喺某啲物種入面,幼蟲時期可以維持超過一年咁耐[11]
  • :螢火蟲幼蟲通常會喺春天嗰陣出返嚟食嘢,然後喺春天尾橛嗰陣結蛹。螢火蟲捐入泥度,喺泥入面起間「房」,喺間房裏面結蛹,又有啲會喺上面結蛹。同(例如)蝴蝶一樣,隻螢火蟲會喺個蛹入面分解,發生好多生物化學作用,經過 10 日左右至幾個禮拜之後,(除非係幼蟲形乸)佢最後會變成一隻同幼蟲個樣好唔同嘅成蟲[11]
  • 成蟲:成蟲最重要嘅工作係搵嘢食同伴侶;成蟲食乜係睇物種嘅,有啲螢火蟲物種成蟲會好似幼蟲噉食肉,又有啲係食花蜜花粉,又有啲物種成蟲係冇口器嘅-呢啲冇口器嘅螢火蟲係食唔到嘢嘅,所以佢哋一由個蛹捐咗出嚟就唔會再食嘢,要做嘅係有咁快得咁快去搵伴侶交配傳宗接代,交配完冇幾耐就會監生餓死[註 2][12]
    • 成蟲腹部發出嘅光可以幫佢哋搵伴侶-唔同物種嘅螢火蟲發光嗰陣,喺啲光嘅時間長度、色水以至重複率等多方面都有差異,所以螢火蟲可以靠睇光分辨邊隻螢火蟲先係同類;交配過後,啲螢火蟲公冇幾耐就會死,而啲螢火蟲乸就係搵地方生蛋然後冇幾耐就死;多數物種嘅螢火蟲成蟲,都係喺夏天嘅幾個禮拜之內渡過佢哋一世蟲最後嘅階段[13][14]

上述噉嘅過程會係噉重複,形成螢火蟲嘅生命循環。

發光[編輯]

加拿大捉到嘅一隻妖掃螢(Photuris)乸,具體物種不明。
睇埋:生物發光

「識發光」可以話係螢火蟲最出名嘅特徵。

化學機制[編輯]

內文:螢光素酶螢光素

螢火蟲可以話係生物發光(bioluminescence)其中一個最出名嘅例子。

螢火蟲體內有專門發光嘅器官,呢啲器官通常係位於隻蟲嘅腹部落啲嘅地方。喺呢啲器官當中,喺螢光素酶(luciferase)呢種酵素同埋離子(Mg2+)嘅催化下,螢火蟲身上嘅螢光素(luciferin)同氧氣O2;由身體嘅唞氣用器官提供)以及三磷酸腺苷(ATP)會進行化學反應,呢場化學反應會產生出好似下圖入面條化學式嘅右手邊嗰啲化學物[註 3]-後者會發光,於是隻蟲嘅下腹就會發光[15][16]

Luciferin1.png

螢火蟲產生嘅光係所謂嘅「凍光」,冇任何嘅紅外線或者紫外光喺裏面,啲光嘅波長會喺 510 至 670 nm 之間,呈黃、綠或者淡紅噉嘅色,當中美國藍鬼螢火蟲(Phausis reticulata)就出嗮名會發出遠睇似係藍白噉色、但近睇綠色嘅光[17][18]

進化功用[編輯]

睇埋:警戒作用

進化論嘅角度睇,發光對螢火蟲嚟講有好多唔同嘅好處:

  • 求偶:對於螢火蟲成蟲嚟講,發光最重要嘅功能係幫助求偶[19][20]
    • 首先,唔同螢火蟲物種發光嘅方式都唔同-螢火蟲發光嗰時喺「一吓光維持幾耐」、光嘅色水、發光時機、光閃頻率、飛得幾高以至飛行方向等方面都可以有物種同品種之間嘅差異,所以如果笪地方有多過一種物種嘅螢火蟲住,發光有助啲螢火蟲搵同類嚟求偶[21][22];搵著唔同物種嘅螢火蟲嚟求偶唔會產生到後代,淨係會嘥時間精神,所以呢種搵同類做法有助啲螢火蟲慳返啲時間精神[23]
    • 螢火蟲响求偶嘅過程裏面,仲可以運用發光嚟同同類通訊;據講穩定放光、閃吓閃吓以至化學訊號等,都可以攞嚟向同類傳達「我喺邊個位置」或者「我係咪同你屬同一種物種」等嘅資訊[註 4][24];喺阜提努螢(Photinus)呢個當中,典型嘅求偶過程係啲唔識飛嘅乸發閃光,話畀啲公知自己喺邊,而啲有翼識飛嘅公就會飛嚟飛去搵乸交配[25]
  • 獵食:有部份螢火蟲物種(尤其係妖掃螢屬)啲成蟲乸會利用發光嚟獵食;呢啲螢火蟲乸曉模仿第啲物種嘅螢火蟲乸發出嘅光,呢啲異種螢火蟲公見到啲光,就會以為係同種嘅螢火蟲乸飛埋去,然後隻發光嘅螢火蟲乸就會捉嗰隻異種螢火蟲公嚟食;呢啲噉嘅螢火蟲乸有咗個花名,叫致命女郎螢火蟲(femme fatale firefly)[26]
  • 警戒作用(aposematism):螢火蟲嘅幼蟲冚唪唥都識發光;幼蟲冇生殖能力,所以幼蟲發光明顯唔係為咗求偶;根據用訊號理論(signalling theory;一套有關「進化生物之間嘅訊號會點互相影響」嘅理論)做嘅研究,幼蟲發光起到警戒作用-好多螢火蟲身上都有一啲難食甚至有毒嘅化合物,所以獵食者將呢啲蟲食咗落肚好多時會唔舒服,如果隻螢火蟲唔識發光望落冇乜特徵嘅,獵食者比較大機會會唔記得食過隻蟲,但如果隻蟲識發光(有種好樣眼嘅特徵),噉獵食者下次再見到螢火蟲嗰陣比較大機會會記得「上次就係食咗呢種蟲搞到唔舒服」;噉即係話發光變咗做種訊號,話畀獵食者知「呢隻蟲好難食或者有毒」[27]

... 呀噉。

生態保育[編輯]

睇埋:光污染

螢火蟲同好多生物一樣,都會受到人類活動嘅影響,例如:

  • 人類做各種建設嗰陣,往往要攞土地用,粗暴啲嘅甚至仲會放火燒森林,諗住清空笪地嚟用,噉樣就有可能搞到螢火蟲喪失既有嘅棲息地[28]
  • 人類好多時會為咗農業周圍噴殺蟲水或者除草劑,呢啲噉嘅化合物可能會傷害螢火蟲,又或者會殺死螢火蟲嘅獵食對象,搞到螢火蟲要搵嘢食難咗[29]
  • 除此之外,螢火蟲多數都係靠發光嚟求偶嘅,而人類發放出嚟嘅各種人造光(好似係街燈呀噉)會造成光污染[30][31],呢啲光有可能會(例如)擾亂喺度飛嚟飛去搵乸交配嘅螢火蟲公,間接阻礙咗佢哋傳宗接代[32]

喺 2015 年,有科學家做咗份研究,首次噉將人造光對螢火蟲嘅負面影響量化噉展示出嚟:嗰份研究喺 4 年之間觀察住一批螢火蟲,並且提供咗證據指出,人造嘅光令到嗰批螢火蟲嘅數量跌咗;對各物種嘅螢火蟲做嘅研究表示,有好幾種物種嘅螢火蟲都面臨絕種嘅威脅[33][34]。因為噉,有唔少生態學同相關領域嘅科學家喺度嘗試做更深入嘅研究,想知點樣保育螢火蟲。

2017 年喺美國佐治亞州南部影到嘅一幅相(幅相曝光咗 8 秒);啲螢火蟲喺度發光求偶。

旗艦物種[編輯]

睇埋:旗艦物種

螢火蟲一樣出名嘅嘢係會被人攞嚟做旗艦物種(flagship species):旗艦物種係生態保育上嘅一個概念,指一啲受人類歡迎嘅生物物種,可以用嚟保護周邊嘅物種。

舉例說明,想像家陣有位生態學家想搞生態保育,佢需要保育幾種物種嘅蜘蛛,因為呢幾種物種有重要嘅生態價值(例如係會捕食某啲害蟲);但呢位生態學家心知,一般人普遍都唔鍾意蛇同蜘蛛,又唔似得生態學家噉理解到呢啲蛇同蜘蛛嘅生態價值,所以如果佢用「保護啲蛇同蜘蛛」為名搞生態保育嘅話,應該難吸引啲人捐錢;不過咁啱得咁橋,呢啲蛇同蜘蛛住嗰笪地有一種好、好得人鍾意嘅蝴蝶;於是位生態學家就改吓個做法,以「保護靚靚蝴蝶」為名搞生態保育,等啲人樂意啲捐錢;喺呢種情況下,嗰種蝴蝶就係一種旗艦物種-受人鍾意、可以攞嚟做宣傳嘅物種,被生態學家攞嚟保護啲唔受人歡迎(但可能好重要)嘅物種[29]

有生態學家指,螢火蟲喺人類文化當中嘅形象幾好(睇下面),可以攞嚟做旗艦物種[4]

生物分類[編輯]

睇埋:放光蟲

根據對化石嘅研究,螢火蟲最起碼白堊紀後半橛(1 億年至 6,600 萬年前)嗰時經已存在,嗰啲螢火蟲化石有明顯嘅發光器官[35],而根據對基因組嘅分析,呢啲遠古螢火蟲祖先係發綠色光嘅[36]。要留意嘅係,「放光蟲」呢隻詞成日畀人攞嚟指螢火蟲,但嚴格嚟講「放光蟲」唔係一個精確嘅科學詞語:要睇一隻生物係咪螢火蟲,係要睇基因嘅,而唔係齋靠睇佢「識唔識發光」,事實係有好多種物種嘅螢火蟲都係唔識發光嘅[37]

根據 2010 年代尾做嘅研究,螢火蟲樖進化樹如下[38]

Coleoptera
Cantharidae etc.

Cantharis lateralis 85974126.jpg


Elateriformia

Elateridae Ampedus nigricollis.jpg





Rhagophthalmidae



Phengodidae Phengodes orbignyi.jpg




Lampyridae(螢火蟲)

Luciolinae Luciola lusitanica ♂.jpg





Pterotinae Firefly - Pterotus obscuripennis, Sierra City, California (cropped).jpg



Ototretinae Oculogryphus chenghoiyanae (cropped).jpg





Lamprohizinae Lamprohiza splendidula01 (cropped).jpg





Psilocladinae




Amydetinae



Photurinae Photuris lucicrescens (cropped).jpg





Lampyrinae Lamprigera yunnana (cropped).jpg










文化影響[編輯]

1891 年一幅日本畫;幅畫描繪兩個人喺夏天嘅夜晚捉螢火蟲。
睇埋:再見螢火蟲同埋雞食放光蟲

西方世界嘅文化當中,螢火蟲嘅形象普遍都係正面嘅:西人喺古典時代古希臘古羅馬)嗰時已經留意到螢火蟲嘅存在;佢哋好多時都留意到,螢火蟲嘅生命稍縱即逝,發幾日光跟住就死,令佢哋諗起好多嘢-例如係童年死亡精靈恐懼愛情以及心靈嘅短暫性呀噉[39][40]。淨係講英文嘅話,有唔少英文作家都有講到螢火蟲[41],例子可以睇吓廿世紀初美國詩人佛洛斯特(Robert Frost)嘅作品《Fireflies in the Garden》(粵譯:花園入面嘅螢火蟲)噉[42]

螢光蟲喺東方文化裏面都有返咁上下正面,包括

雞食放光蟲gai1 sik6 fong3 gwong1 cung4
歇後語係「心知肚明」噉解。

睇埋[編輯]

註釋[編輯]

  1. 不過「放光蟲」係個冇咁精確嘅詞,可以係指好幾類曉發光嘅昆蟲,唔一定係螢火蟲。
  2. 可以睇埋飛蛾-好多物種嘅飛蛾都有「成蟲冇口器」嘅情況。
  3. 順帶一提,螢光素酶因而有醫學價值,可以攞嚟探測 ATP 或者鎂離子嘅存在。
  4. 唔識發光嗰啲螢火蟲物種,往往會有極複雜嘅費洛蒙系統用嚟同同類溝通。

文獻[編輯]

[編輯]

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  46. 過年與孩子玩歇後語 「雞食放光蟲」代表甚麼?

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