認知負荷

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢

認知負荷粵拼jing6 zi1 fu6 ho6英文cognitive load)喺認知心理學上嘅一個概念,定義上係指一件認知作業所霸走嘅工作記憶資源有幾多:當一個認知系統嘗試處理資訊解難嗰時,佢要接收各種嘅外界資訊,同時又要由長期記憶嗰度提取需要用嘅資訊,負責暫時儲住呢啲用緊嘅資訊,等個系統可以對呢啲資訊作出運算嘅子系統就係所謂嘅工作記憶(working memory);一件作業會霸走若干量嘅工作記憶資源(認知負荷),而一般嚟講,一個個體花愈多認知資源喺一件作業上,佢喺嗰個作業上嘅表現就會愈好-答啱嘅機會率上升、反應時間變快同更加快搞掂等等[1][2]

認知負荷受好多因素影響,例如專家知識(expertise)就會減低一件工作嘅認知負荷-簡單講即係,一個人做一件作業做得愈熟手,佢做件作業嗰陣要受嘅認知負荷就會愈少,愈可以喺做嗰樣嘢嗰陣空啲認知資源出嚟做第樣嘢[3][4]

量度方法[編輯]

心理學實驗當中,認知負荷可以用三大方法量度[1]

  • 問卷,研究者可以喺實驗後或者途中要求受試者答 9 分做滿分,自己受嘅認知負荷有幾勁[5]
  • 生理量度,一般認為腦活動(睇埋事件相關電位)同眼活動(斬眼有幾快同瞳孔嘅放大)等都能夠反映認知負荷[1]
  • 次要作業表現,俾受試者同時做另一件比較無關痛癢嘅作業(例:數熒幕嘅另一邊有幾多次有粒星閃過),如果受試者真係集中精神做件主要作業,佢喺呢件次要作業嘅表現應該會差[6]

分類[編輯]

當一個人喺度做一件作業,喺每一個時間點,佢嘅總認知負荷係三個數嘅總和[1]

代表本質負荷(intrinsic load),即係件作業本身嘅複雜性所造成嘅負荷。
代表外來負荷(extraneous load),即係指因為要理解件作業所造成嘅負荷;呢個數值喺教育學上好取決於個老師教得好唔好-一個好嘅老師理應要能夠為學習者提供清楚易明嘅指示,令 嘅數值有咁細得咁細。
係指相關負荷(germane load),指個認知系統一路做件作業一路處理同重組基模(schema;簡單講就係一路做一路學習)造成嘅負荷。

睇埋[編輯]

參考文獻[編輯]

  • Barrett, H. C.; Frederick, D.; Haselton, M.; Kurzban, R. (2006). "Can manipulations of cognitive load be used to test evolutionary hypotheses?" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 91 (3): 513–518. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.583.7931. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.91.3.513. PMID 16938033. Archived from the original on 2011-06-08.
  • Cooper, G. (1990). "Cognitive load theory as an aid for instructional design". Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. 6 (2): 108–113. doi:10.14742/ajet.2322. Archived from the original on 2002-10-28.]
  • Plass, J.L.; Moreno, R.; Brünken, R., eds. (2010). Cognitive Load Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521677585.
  • Sweller, J. (1994). "Cognitive Load Theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design". Learning and Instruction. 4 (4): 295–312. doi:10.1016/0959-4752(94)90003-5.
  • Sweller, J. (1999). Instructional design in technical areas. Camberwell, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research. ISBN 978-0-86431-312-6.

[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Plass, J.L.; Moreno, R.; Brünken, R., eds. (2010). Cognitive Load Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Frein, Scott T.; Jones, Samantha L.; Gerow, Jennifer E. (November 2013). "When it comes to Facebook there may be more to bad memory than just multitasking". Computers in Human Behavior. 29 (6): 2179–2182.
  3. Fink, A., & Neubauer, A. C. (2001). Speed of information processing, psychometric intelligence, and time estimation as an index of cognitive load. Personality & Individual Differences, 30, 1009–1021.
  4. Paas, F., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (1994). Instructional control of cognitive load in the training of complex cognitive tasks. Educational Psychology Review, 6, 51–71.
  5. Gopher, D., & Braune, R. (1984). On the psychophysics of workload: Why bother with subjective measures? Human Factors, 26, 519–532.
  6. van Merriënboer, J. J. G, Schuurman, J. G., de Croock, M. B. M., & Paas, F. (2002). Redirecting learners’ attention during training: Effects on cognitive load, transfer test performance and training. Learning and Instruction, 12, 11–39.

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