馬達加斯加動物

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
Jump to navigation Jump to search
馬島狸係呢個島嘅獨特例子。無論體型同行為上都好似一隻大貓,但事實上佢係獴嗰類

馬達加斯加係世界第4大島,大約喺1億6500年前開始同非洲分開而成,當人類喺大概2000年前嚟到呢個島之前孕育咗好多種獨特嘅野生動物,當中更有4分之3嘅動物係世界上任何地方都見唔到嘅。但隨住人類大力砍伐樹林,令動物嘅原生地受到嚴重破壞,某部分珍貴嘅大型動物已經先後絕種。

Despite this, and massive deforestation, Madagascar is still home to an incredible array of wildlife, the vast majority of which is unique in the world.[1] Madagascar is a primary spot for ecotourism,[2] with more than fifty national parks and other protected reserves.

There are believed to have been only five colonization events of terrestrial mammals from mainland Africa. They are the tenrecs, the lemurs, the Malagasy carnivorans, the Nesomyinae, and the now-extinct bibymalagasians. The other mammalian colonizations are the amphibious hippopotamuses (now extinct) and bats.

而家重生存嘅動物[編輯]

狐猴:狐猴係一種非常獨特,種群差異非常大嘅靈長目動物。幾百萬年前,全世界都有狐猴分佈,但佢哋因為唔夠更進化嘅靈長目爭而先後絕種。佢哋好可能係喺馬達加斯加從非洲分離嗰時,先至喺島上繁衍生息嘅[3]。馬達加斯加島目前大約有75種唔同種類嘅狐猴,當中更有25種係動物學家響最近10年之內發現嘅[4]

靈貓:Primary among these malagasy carnivores is the 馬島狸 (Cryptoprocta ferox), a type of civet despite its feline appearance. Other Malagasy carnivores include the fanaloka (Fossa fossana), which, despite its scientific name , should not be confused with the fossa. Nor should it be confused with the very similarly named falanouc (Eupleres goudotii), also known as the Malagasy Small-toothed Civet. Five species of mongoose are also found in Madagascar, as is the 小靈貓:唯一被相信由外來引入嘅食肉動物。

Tenrecs: Three species of tenrec (the otter shrews) are found on the African mainland. The majority of tenrecs, around 30 species, are found in Madagascar. They have radiated into many different niches. For example web-footed tenrecs (Limnogale mergulus) resemble river otters in appearance and behaviour. The Lesser Hedgehog Tenrec (Echinops telfairi) resembles its namesake the hedgehog.

嚙齒目:Fourteen species of rodent are found on Madagascar. They are all members of the muroid subfamily Nesomyinae. These have also radiated into various niches, with vole-like forms, arboreal mice, fossorial varieties, and rabbit-like forms.

蝙蝠:大約有30種蝙蝠可以響該島搵到。但半數係由外地引入。

爬蟲類:Madagascar is a stronghold for a wide diversity of endemic species of Chameleons and is considered the radiation point for day geckos. The Madagascar Big-headed Turtle is an endangered species.

兩棲類:see Amphibians of Madagascar.

雀鳥:see Endemic birds of Madagascar and western Indian Ocean islands

甲蟲:Various species of beetles. For example various tiger beetles (Cicindelidae): 109 species from genus Pogonostoma[5], 65 species from genus Physodeutera[6].

已絕種嘅動物[編輯]

巨狐猴:至少有17種狐猴喺人類嚟到之後就絕種。啲狐猴唔單止係現今狐猴嘅加大版咁單止,就連佢哋嘅樣貌,生活方式同活動方式都完全唔同。有啲係陸生嘅,用四隻腳喺地上行;有啲好似樹懶咁(sloth lemur),頭下腳上咁倒掛自己喺樹上面;重有啲好似樹熊咁係好笨重嘅爬樹動物,加埋好似狗咁嘅咀,而軀幹又比其他大型狐猴嘅短。最大嘅一種狐猴,大到可以長到180公斤咁重,大小同重量都同而家嘅銀背大猩猩差唔多[7]

巨馬島狸Cryptoprocta spelea):化石證據顯示,馬達加斯加經存在一種比馬島狸更大隻嘅食肉動物:巨馬島狸。佢哋嘅大體型就好似變短咗腳嘅美洲獅咁樣。人可以喺現存嘅食肉動物身上,搵到呢種狸嘅生活方式。 The fossil record of Madagascar has yielded the remains of a giant, recently extinct fossa, which was about a quarter larger than the living species[8] , making it close to the size of an ocelot. This species was believed to have preyed upon the larger lemurs that inhabited Madagascar until the island was settled by man.

馬島河馬:馬達加斯加曾經有過2種侏儒河馬,其中馬達加斯加侏儒河馬比而家嘅侏儒河馬重細隻,有可能只喺陸地上生活。

象鳥Aepyornis maximus):呢種巨型雀鳥有成米高,半噸重。係世界上曾經生存過嘅最大型雀鳥。象鳥喺馬達加斯加一直倖存到17世紀。

大眾文化[編輯]

  • As a part of conservation efforts, the Wildlife Conservation Society has recently opened a Madagascar! exhibit at the Bronx Zoo. The New York Academy of Sciences recently published a Podcast about the Madagascar! exhibit, which details the fauna of Madagascar and what types of projects the WCS is involved with in the country. The Podcast can be listened to here

香港動植物公園現時亦有飼養2種狐猴,佢哋亦係馬達加斯加嘅特產。

資料[編輯]

  1. The Natural History of Madagascar, 2003
  2. Madagascar Wildlife: A Visitor's Guide, 2nd ed., 2001
  3. 《遭遇大怪獸:人類史前生存戰爭》ISBN 986-80922-0-5
  4. Lemurs of Madagascar (Conservation International Tropical Field Guide Series), 2006
  5. Moravec Jiří, 2007: A monograph of the genus Pogonostoma. Tiger beetles of Madagascar, volume 1. 30 colour plates, 499 pp. (in English). ISBN 978-80-86447-13-1.
  6. Moravec Jiří, 2002: A monograph of the genus Physodeutera. Tiger beetles of Madagascar, volume 2. 21 colour plates, 290 pp. (in English).
  7. 《遭遇大怪獸:人類史前生存戰爭》ISBN 986-80922-0-5
  8. Goodman S. M., Rasoloarison R. M. and Ganzhorn J. U. (2004). On the specific identification of subfossil Cryptoprocta (Mammalia, Carnivora) from Madagascar. Zoosystema, 26 (1): 129-143. [available at http://www.mnhn.fr/museum/front/medias/publication/1334_z04n1a9.pdf 互聯網檔案館歸檔,歸檔日期2006年11月27號,.] 互聯網檔案館歸檔,歸檔日期2006年11月27號,.

睇埋[編輯]

出面網頁[編輯]