Help:英文嘅國際音標讀音

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
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以下嘅表格係按返國際音標嘅標準嚟話明,喺維基百科入面嘅英文讀音係噉嚟嘅:

想知多啲,請睇下英文嘅音標

符號[編輯]

IPAicon.png

(按小型大寫字母 small capitals 寫出嘅單字係基本詞類。單字 bathcloth 都有兩種唔同嘅發音,分別係 /ɑː//æ/,重有 /ɒ//ɔː/

輔音
讀音 粵語近字
b buy, cab
d dye, cad
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge, jam
f phi, caff, fan
ɡ (ɡ)[1] guy, bag
h high, ahead
j yes, yacht
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
ŋ sang, sink, singer
ŋɡ finger, anger
θ thigh, math [2]
[2]
p pie, spy, cap
r rye, try, very[3]
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, atom
China, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
hw why[4]
z zoo, has
ʒ pleasure, vision, beige[5]
邊輔音
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[6]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/
元音
讀音 完全元音 粵語近字 ……後邊跟住 R[7][8] 粵語近字
ɑː palm, baht, father, bra ɑr start, bard, barn, snarl, star/ɑːr./ 重可以)
ɒ lot, pod, John, doll[9] ɒr moral, forage
æ trap, pad, shall, ban ær barrow, marry
price, ride, file, fine, pie[10] aɪər fire (/aɪr./)[8]
mouth, loud, foul, down, how aʊər hour (/aʊr./)[8]
ɛ dress, bed, fell, men[11] ɛr error, merry[12]
face, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər square, scared, scarce, cairn, Mary (/eɪr./)[13][8]
ɪ kit, lid, fill, bin ɪr mirror, Sirius
fleece, seed, feel, mean, sea ɪər near, beard, fierce, serious (/iːr./)
ɔː thought, Maud, dawn, fall, straw[14] ɔr north, born, for, aural (/ɔːr./)
ɔɪ choice, void, foil, coin, boy ɔɪər loir, coir (/ɔɪr./)[8]
goat, code, foal, bone, go[15] ɔər force, boar, more, oral (/oʊr./)[16] 柯亞
ʊ foot, good, full, woman ʊr courier
goose, food, fool, soon, chew ʊər boor, moor, tourist (/uːr./)[17]
juː cued, cute, mule, tune, queue[18] jʊər cure
ʌ strut, mud, dull, gun[19] ʌr borough, hurry
ɜr nurse, word, girl, fern, furry (/ɝː/)[20]
弱化元音
ə Rosa’s, a mission, comma ər letter, perform(/ɚ/ 重可以係)[20]
ɨ roses, emission[21] ɪə (唔发音) ən button
ɵ omission[22] ə əm rhythm
ʉ beautiful, curriculum ([jʉ])[23] ʊə əl bottle
i happy, serious[24] ɪ ᵊ, ⁱ (元音成日弱化成:nasturtium)
 
重音 音節劃分
讀音 粵語近字 讀音 粵語近字
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/,[25]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[26]
. shellfish /ˈʃɛl.fɪʃ/, selfish /ˈsɛlf.ɨʃ/
nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/
hire /ˈhaɪər/, higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/
moai /ˈmoʊ.aɪ/, Windhoek /ˈvɪnt.hʊk/
Vancouveria /væn.kuːˈvɪəriə/[27]
ˌ

[編輯]

  1. 如估‹ɡ›同‹Opentail g.svg›呢兩個符號都唔一樣,而且第一個字睇落去好似個‹γ›字嘅話,噉係你臺電腦嘅標準字體有問題,唔該睇埋渲染問題.
  2. 2.0 2.1 「夫」字係廣州同香港地區嘅譯音,而「斯」字係珠海同佛山地區嘅譯音。
  3. 雖然話「[r]」呢個國際音標符號係有顫音,但喺英文界嘅讀音方面,大多數人都係用「/r/」符號嘅讀音,得好少人係用「/ɹ/」嘅讀音,除非喺大部分嘅英文抄寫情況先至用「/ɹ/」。
  4. 唔好將「/hw/」同「/w/」呢個讀音搞亂。因為「/w/」呢個讀音喺英文嘅方言入面係併入咗。想知多啲,睇吓英文嘅wh音變化。就好似英式公認發音同大多數嘅美式發音噉嘅區分。
  5. 就好似genregarage呢一大堆嘅英文單詞,都唔係讀/ʒ/音就係/dʒ/音喇。
  6. 喺大部分嘅英文方言入面,/x/loch單詞成日讀成/k/音,而喺Chanukah係成日讀成/h/音。
  7. In non-rhotic accents like RP, /r/ is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In some Wikipedia articles, /ɪər/ etc. may not be distinguished from /ɪr/ etc. When they are distinguished, the long vowels are sometimes transcribed /iːr/ etc. by analogy with vowels not followed by /r/. These should be fixed to correspond with the chart here.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Note that many speakers distinguish monosyllabic triphthongs with R and disyllabic realizations: hour /ˈaʊər/ from plougher /ˈplaʊ.ər/, hire /ˈhaɪər/ from higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/, loir /ˈlɔɪər/ from employer /ɨmˈplɔɪ.ər/, mare /ˈmɛər/ from mayor /ˈmeɪ.ər/.
  9. 喺美式英文嘅方言讀音入面,千祈冇將/ɒ/音同/ɑː/音搞亂。想知多啲,睇吓英文嘅後重原音變化
  10. Many speakers, for example in most of Canada, have a different vowel in price and ride. Generally, an [aɪ] is used at the ends of words and before voiced sounds, as in ride, file, fine, pie, while an [əɪ] is used before voiceless sounds, as in price and write. Because /t/ and /d/ are often conflated in the middle of words in these dialects, derivatives of these words, such as rider and writer, may be distinguished only by their vowel: [ˈɹʷɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷəɪɾəɹ]. However, even though the value of /aɪ/ is not predictable in some words, such as spider [ˈspəɪɾəɹ],[未記出處或無根據] dictionaries do not generally record it, so it has not been allocated a separate transcription here.
  11. Instead of ɛ, many dictionaries use /e/ as a simplification, in other words without actually intending this sound.[1][2][3]
  12. Instead of ɛ, many dictionaries use /e/ as a simplification, in other words without actually intending this sound.[4][5][6]
  13. The GenAm pronunciation is ɛr. Instead of using ɛ in RP ɛər and GenAm ɛr, many dictionaries use /e/ (eər in RP and er in GenAm) as a simplification, in other words without actually intending this sound.[7][8][9]
  14. /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot-caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
  15. Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  16. /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse-hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
  17. /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour-poor merger, including many younger speakers.
  18. In dialects with yod-dropping, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod-coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.
  19. This phoneme is not used in the northern half of England and some bordering parts of Wales. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot-strut split.
  20. 20.0 20.1 In some articles /ɜr/ is transcribed as /ɝː/, and /ər/ as /ɚ/, when not followed by a vowel.
  21. Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, and [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians (vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322) and the OED use the pseudo-IPA symbol ɪ [10], and Merriam–Webster uses ə̇.
  22. Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech. (Bolinger 1989) Usually transcribed as /ə(ʊ)/ (or similar ways of showing variation between /əʊ/ and /ə/) in British dictionaries.
  23. Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ʊ [11].
  24. Pronounced /iː/ in dialects with the happy tensing, /ɪ/ in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with /ɪ/, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to /i/.
  25. It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress (vd. Ladefoged 1993), but it is conventional to notate them as here.
  26. Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
  27. Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion, for example to break up sequences of vowels (moai) or consonant clusters which an English speaker might misread as a digraph (Vancouveria, Windhoek).