史察福

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史察福火車站
伊利沙伯奧運公園

史察福英文Stratford,又譯斯特拉福特),係英國倫敦嘅一個地方,係倫敦紐咸區嘅一部分。史察福位於倫敦查令十字以東北六英里(十公里),係倫敦都市規劃藍圖其中一個核心。史察福火車站係東倫敦重要嘅交通樞紐。

史察福本來係一條農村,隸屬雅息士郡。1839年,鐵路網開到史察福,將史察福變成一個工業區。二十世紀中,史察福成為韋斯咸區嘅政經中心。1965年大倫敦成立,將史察福納入範圍之內。近年,史察福由工業區轉型做商業、文化區,並喺2005至2011年間大規模重建,將荒廢咗嘅工業用地變成2012年倫敦奧運主場伊利沙伯奧運公園

歷史[編輯]

地名[編輯]

史上第一次有文獻記載「史察福」呢個地方係1067年嘅事。當時嘅古英語地名串法係Strætfordi,字面解釋係「大路上嘅漫水橋」。呢條漫水橋係由倫敦去高車士打羅馬大路中,要過李河(River Lea)嘅必經之路。附近嘅寶區亦都曾經用過Stratford呢個名,所以史察福又會用Estratford「東史察福」、Statford Hamme「咸區嘅史察福」(指韋斯咸)、或者Abbei Stratford「修道院史察福」,方便搞清楚兩條村[1]

發展史[編輯]

史察福本來係一條農村,好近倫敦,所以嗰度嘅農產品大有市場。晌十八世紀,史察福一帶出名種薯仔,薯仔產業一路蓬勃至十九世紀中葉[2]。最早入主史察福嘅工業係一間陶瓷廠。兩位本地瓷器師傅(Edward Heylin同埋Thomas Frye)用一個晌1744年申請咗專利嘅方法,喺史察福開工廠,燒製低溫瓷器[3] The site of the factory was to the north of Stratford High Street near the modern Bow Flyover; it was the subject of archaeological excavations in 1921 and 1969.[4]

By the early 19th century, Stratford was an important transport hub, with omnibuses and coaches running into London four times every hour and coaches from East Anglia passing through hourly. The route into London was plied by Walter Hancock's steam coaches for a period during the 1830s.[5]

A small dock and a number of wharves were operating on the River Lea at Stratford by the 1820s, serving the needs of local industries. However, the opening of the nearby Royal Victoria Dock in 1855 and the subsequent construction of the Royal Group of Docks (at one time the largest area of impounded water in the world), increased Stratford's importance as a transport and manufacturing centre.[6]

Engine repair shop of the Stratford Railway Works, 1921

In 1839, the Great Eastern Railway built a railway station at Stratford, which was the point at which their two main routes diverged; one going from London to Cambridge and the other to Colchester. A railway works and depot for engines and rolling stock was established by Great Eastern in 1847 to the north of Stratford. At its peak, the works employed over 2,500 many of whom had homes, along with other rail workers, in the town that developed nearby. It was originally called Hudson Town, after George Hudson, the "Railway King;", but the settlement quickly became better known as Stratford New Town, which by 1862 had a population of 20,000.[7] During the lifetime of the Stratford works, 1,682 locomotives, 5,500 passenger coaches and 33,000 goods wagons were built. The last part of the works closed in March 1991.[8]

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