樽裝水

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去: 定向搵嘢
New PETE bottled water

樽裝水食水一種,用裝住,可以係膠樽或者玻璃樽。食水可以係水喉水荷蘭水礦泉水蒸餾水等,有啲係有氣嘅(即係碳酸水)。

全球銷量[編輯]

近呢幾十年,樽裝水嘅銷量急劇上升。喺1990年至2005年呢短短15年間,樽裝水嘅消耗已經上升咗超過4倍[1]。去到2006年,銷量已經上升到600億美元,容量達1.15億立方米[2]。據估計,全球每年消耗約2000億樽樽裝水[3]

儲存[編輯]

樽裝水通常儲存為自然災難發生時嘅緊急儲備。災害管理專家建議為每人儲備3.8公升嘅水,呢個數包括咗飲用、煮食、洗手、洗碗同埋個人衛生所用嘅水[4]。由工廠封好咗嘅水只要冇開過或者損毀,可以擺幾耐都得[5],至於樽上所印嘅到期日指出嘅只係喺嗰個日期之前樽水仍然新鮮,而唔係話過咗期之後就唔乾淨或者唔安全

關於樽裝水嘅爭議[編輯]

對健康嘅影響[編輯]

美國國家環境保護局(Environmental Protection Agency,EPA)規定,飲用水最多只可以含有90種污染物,而只有15種就更好[6]

1950年代開始,水喉水通常加入咗氟化物嚟防止爛牙。因為樽裝水通過蒸餾或者反滲透嘅處理,相對天然地下水,樽裝水含有少啲氟離子,所以長期飲樽裝水,會易啲爛牙[7]。但係,吸收氟化物嚟防止爛牙嘅安全同埋效用仍然受爭議[8]

德國法蘭克褔大學研究指出,有好多用膠樽裝嘅樽裝水,都染咗雌激素化合物。雖然有啲用玻璃樽裝嘅水亦都有污染,但係研究者仍然認為污染物係嚟膠樽[9]。膠樽暴露喺太凍或者太熱嘅地方都可能會導致啲化合物溶喺樽裝水入面。

樽裝水同埋水喉水[編輯]

香港,一樽500毫升嘅樽裝水大概賣4至5港元,而同量嘅水喉水就只需0.00000208港元(按照每立方米嘅水費係4.16港元)[10]。通常大於百分之90嘅樽裝水嘅售價都唔係用喺樽水本身,而係用喺包裝、運輸、營銷、零售等等嘅雜費,同埋盈利。[11]

另外,因為樽裝水冇經過用嚟泵水嘅金屬水管,所以相對於水喉水,樽裝水含有較少嘅等等金屬污染物[12]

一個比較57個樽裝水同水喉水樣本嘅研究發現,所有水喉水樣本嘅細菌含量係低於3個CFUs/mL﹝菌落形成單位毫升﹞,而樽裝水樣本嘅細菌含量就由最少0.01去到最多4900個CFU/mL不等,當中雖然有15個樣本有多達6至4900個CFUs/mL,大部份嘅樣本都得少於1個CFU/mL[13]。但係喺美國亞拉巴馬州,有一個測試25個唔同牌子樽裝水嘅研究就發現,大部份樣本嘅同埋嘅含量都超過美國國家環境保護局訂定嘅上限[14]

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. Li, Ling. Bottled Water Consumption Jumps, Worldwatch Institute. November 8, 2007.
  2. King, Mike. Bottled Water Global Industry Guide, PR-inside.com, July 7, 2008.
  3. "A Fountain On Every Corner", New York Times. Find A Fountain, May 23, 2008.
  4. Manjoo, Farhad. How To Survive an Earthquake. 11 March 2011. 
  5. Template:Cite paper
  6. Drinking Water Contaminants | Drinking Water Contaminants | US EPA. Epa.gov. . 喺2010-10-15搵到;. 
  7. Smith, Michael. Bottled Water Cited as Contributing to Cavity Comeback, MedPage Today, September 19, 2005.
  8. Serum Fluoride Level and Children's Intelligence Quotient in Two Villages in China.
  9. Bottled water in plastic containers contaminated from plastic containers
  10. [1]
  11. [2], NRDC, undated.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Petraccia, L., Liberati, G., Masciullo S.G., Grassi, M. & Fraioli, A. Water, mineral waters and health. Clinical Nutrition: 377–385. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2005.10.002. 
  13. 引用錯誤 無效嘅<ref>標籤; 無文字提供於名為Lalumandier嘅參照
  14. Ikem, A., Odueyungbo, S., Egiebor, N.O., & Nyavor, K. Chemical quality of bottled waters from three cities in eastern Alabama. The Science of the Total Environment. 2001, 285 (1-3): 165–175. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00915-9. 
  15. World Health Organization, "How to measure chlorine residual in water" WHO - Technical Notes for Emergencies, Technical Note No. 11, 4 Draft revised: 7.1.05 (pdf)
  16. Bottled Water. Penn Jillette, Teller. Bullshit!. Showtime. 2003-03-07. No. 7, season 1.
  17. Paulson, Tom. Thirst for bottled water may hurt environment, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, April 19, 2007.
  18. Grand Canyon to ban bottled water sales. February 8, 2012. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 "Smaller categories still saw growth as the U.S. liquid refreshment beverage market shrunk by 2.0% in 2008, Beverage Marketing Corporation reports", press release Beverage Marketing Corporation, 3/30/2009.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Foley, Meraiah. BUNDANOON JOURNAL; Ban on Bottled Water, Apparently a First, Puts a Small Town on a Big Stage. The New York Times. July 17, 2009. 
  21. Banning the bottle puts Bundy on the map
  22. Foley, Meraiah. Small Australian Town Stands Up for the Tap. The New York Times. July 16, 2009. 
  23. http://www.bundyontap.com.au
  24. Keen, Judy. Bottled water leaves some cities with a bad taste. USA Today. October 17, 2007. 喺April 1, 2010搵到;. 
  25. European Directive 2009/54/EC, June 18, 2009.
  26. Directive 2001/83/EC, November 6, 2001.
  27. http://ddc.aub.edu.lb/projects/geology/geology-of-lebanon/
  28. http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/lebanon/index.stm
  29. http://www.earth-policy.org/plan_b_updates/2006/update51
  30. http://www.eagleworldnews.com/2010/03/23/lebanon-suffers-massive-water-shortages/
  31. "Changing Consumer Tastes Creates Explosive Growth For Domestic And International Bottled Water Brands - Revenue In 2007 Expected To Reach $5.974 Billion With Growth Set To Climb Higher Through 2012", press release, IBISWorld, May 21, 2008.
  32. Learn More: Bottled Water. Columbia Water Center. . 喺2009-09-15搵到;. 

出面網頁[編輯]