首相嘅問題

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去: 定向搵嘢

首相嘅問題Prime Minister's QuestionsPMQ),正式叫做向首相嘅問題Questions to the Prime Minister)係聯合王國嘅一種憲政傳統constitutional convention);每逢星期三下議院開會時首相會用半個鐘頭來答議員("MPs")嘅問。

加拿大,對等嘅習慣叫問題時段Question Period),而且聯邦議院同省議院都會咁做;響澳洲紐西蘭就叫做問題時間Question Time);響蘇格蘭議院威爾斯議會叫 首相嘅問題(First Minister's Questions);響印度下議院Lok Sabha)有問題鐘頭Question Hour)。

聯合王國[編輯]

呢種逢一定時辰就揾個首相來問嘅習慣始於1950年代。

想問嘢嘅後排議員要響張 Order Paper 上填名。之後啲名會響個ballot 度洗勻,來決定出講者(Speaker,有人叫議長)叫問題嘅次序。講者會叫啲MP 提問,通常會畀政府同反對黨議員交替住咁問。無被選中嘅 MP 都有機會被講者叫來發問,如果渠「捉到講者嘅眼」(catch the eye of the Speaker):渠要剛啱響首相回答之前企起身然後即刻坐低。傳統上,主要反對黨魁會係第三或第四個被叫嘅;而次要反對黨魁就會係第五或第六。

The first formal question on the Order Paper, posed by simply saying "Number One, Mr. Speaker", is to ask the Prime Minister if he/she will list his/her engagements for the day. The current Prime Minister, Tony Blair, usually replies:

This morning I had meetings with ministerial colleagues and others. In addition to my duties in the House, I will have further such meetings later today.

The Prime Minister may also take a moment before giving the answer to extend condolences or congratulations after significant events. After this, the MP may ask a supplementary question about any subject which might occupy the Prime Minister's time. The reason for asking the Prime Minister about his engagements is because, until recently, any member of the cabinet could answer the posed question, allowing the Prime Minister to avoid answering questions themselves, but once someone answers a question, they are obliged to answer follow up questions (on any topic). The only question that the Prime Minister had to answer personally was his list of engagements for the week; hence he is asked this question first, and all subsequent questions are follow up questions, forcing the Prime Minister to answer the questions himself.

The Leader of the Opposition is allowed six supplementary questions (which he will normally use as two groups of three), and the leader of the third largest party (currently the Liberal Democrats) has two. The Speaker tries to alternate between government and opposition questioners, and MPs who have drawn a low number or did not enter the ballot can be called in order to provide this balance.

If the Prime Minister is away on official business then a substitute will answer questions. This is usually the Deputy Prime Minister, or if unavailable, the Leader of the House of Commons. It is customary on occasions where the Leader of the Opposition or the leader of the third party is absent for them to also send a substitute.

Since the televising of Parliament, Prime Minister's Questions (or "PMQs") have formed an important part of British political culture. Because of the natural drama of this confrontation, it is the most well-known piece of Parliamentary business. Tickets to the Strangers Gallery (public gallery) for Wednesday are the most sought-after Parliamentary tickets. One of Tony Blair's first acts as Prime Minister was to replace the two 15-minute sessions, held on a Tuesday and Thursday, with a single 30 minute session on a Wednesday—a move for which he was criticised.

PMQs has also been a popular feature on the US cable channel C-SPAN, and has been spoofed by sketches on Saturday Night Live. It is also currently being re-broadcast on CPAC in Canada.

Leaders at the Dispatch boxes during Prime Minister's questions since 1945[編輯]

The most high-profile contributors at Prime Minister's Questions are, of course, the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition—who speak opposite each other at the Dispatch box. Regular, fixed sessions have taken place since the 1950s, and the list below shows all the Prime Ministers since 1945 and all the Opposition Leaders they faced across the floor of the House of Commons;

  • Winston Churchill, faced by Clement Attlee 1951–1955
  • Edward Heath, faced by Harold Wilson 1970–1974

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