無神論

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去: 定向搵嘢

無神論(Atheism)係擺明姿勢,一係肯定無(deity)[1],一係否定神學(theism)[2]。 闊啲講[3],係無神嘅信仰(belief)係,非神論nontheism[4]

好多自認(self-identity)無神論者,對超自然嘅嘢,都抱懷疑態度(skepticism),同講無體驗(empiricism)證據證明神嘅存在。其他都以哲學、社會或者史學做無神論嘅論據。好多自認無神論者,都傾向通俗(secularism)哲學,例如人文主義(humanism)[5]自然主義(naturalism)[6]。無神論並無一套意識形態,無神論者一套一定行為[7]。有啲宗敎,好似耆那敎佛敎咁,唔使信人格神(personal god)。

無神論個西文atheism原本係指任何同發展成熟嘅宗敎有衝突,人又好,信念又好,係種蔑稱。[8][9]。之不過,自由思想(freethought), 科學懷疑(scientific skepticism)同埋宗敎批判(criticism of religion)散發,atheism個意思越來越專門,最後變成無神論者嘅自稱。

[編輯]

  1. Pojman, Louis P (1999). Robert Audi, 編. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (第(2nd edition)版). the view that there are no gods. A widely used sense denotes merely not believing in God and is consistent with agnosticism. A stricter sense denotes a belief that there is no God... 
  2. Nielsen, Kai. "Atheism". Encyclopædia Britannica. 喺2007-04-28搵到.  "Atheism, in general, the critique and denial of metaphysical beliefs in God or spiritual beings... a more adequate characterization of atheism consists in the more complex claim that to be an atheist is to be someone who rejects belief in God for [reasons that depend] on how God is being conceived."
  3. religioustolerance.org's short article on Definitions of the term "Atheism" suggests that there is no consensus on the definition of the term. Most dictionaries (see the OneLook query for "atheism") first list one of the more narrow definitions.
    • Eller, David (2004). Natural Atheism. 第 p 12頁. All humans are born Atheists. No baby born into the world arrives with specific religious beliefs or knowledge. Such beliefs and knowledge must be acquired, which means that they must first exist before and apart from the new life and that they must be presented to and impressed on the new suggestible mind—one that has no critical apparatus and no alternative views of its own. 
    • Angeles, Peter A. (1981). Dictionary of Philosophy. USA: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 9780064634618. 1. the belief that gods do not, or God does not, exist; 2. The disbelief in any kind of supernatural existence that is supposed to affect the universe; 3. the lack of belief in a particular God 
    • Runes, Dagobert D.(editor) (1942 edition). Dictionary of Philosophy. New Jersey: Littlefield, Adams & Co. Philosophical Library. ISBN 0064634612. (a) the belief that there is no God; (b) Some philosophers have been called "atheistic" because they have not held to a belief in a personal God. Atheism in this sense means "not theistic". The former meaning of the term is a literal rendering. The latter meaning is a less rigorous use of the term though widely current in the history of thought  檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情) - entry by Vergilius Ferm
  4. Honderich, Ted (Ed.) (1995). "Humanism". The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford University Press. p 376. ISBN 0-19-866132-0.
  5. Fales, Evan. "Naturalism and Physicalism", in Martin 2007, pp. 122–131.
  6. Baggini 2003, pp. 3–4.
  7. Drachmann, A. B. (1977 ("an unchanged reprint of the 1922 edition")). Atheism in Pagan Antiquity. Chicago: Ares Publishers. ISBN 0-89005-201-8. Atheism and atheist are words formed from Greek roots and with Greek derivative endings. Nevertheless they are not Greek; their formation is not consonant with Greek usage. In Greek they said atheos and atheotēs; to these the English words ungodly and ungodliness correspond rather closely. In exactly the same way as ungodly, atheos was used as an expression of severe censure and moral condemnation; this use is an old one, and the oldest that can be traced. Not till later do we find it employed to denote a certain philosophical creed.  檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情)
  8. Stanley, Thomas (1687). The history of philosophy 1655–61. quoted in Oxford English Dictionary. An Atheist is taken two ways, for him who is an enemy to the Gods, and for him who believeth there are no Gods.