跳去內容

1819年新加坡條約

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書

喺1819年2月6號,英國人萊佛士爵士,同天猛公阿都拉曼以及蘇丹東姑胡先,三個人喺一個公開儀式上面簽署《新加坡條約[1][2],正式又稱《友好與聯盟條約》[3][4]。而簽署儀式嘅位置,相信係位於依家嘅政府大廈大草坪(The Padang)[5][6][7] 。關於依條條約,最為人熟識嘅係入面包含條款,批准英國喺新加坡開設貿易站嘅法律權力,同時亦標誌住英國喺嗰到殖民定居嘅開始。[1] 而喺依家,1819年2月6號仍然係被官方承認為現代新加坡開埠嘅日子。[2][8]

參考[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "1819 Singapore Treaty". Singapore Infopedia (英文). 新加坡國家圖書館管理局. 原先內容歸檔喺15 January 2023. On 6 February 1819, Stamford Raffles, Temenggong Abdu’r Rahman and Sultan Hussein Shah of Johor signed a treaty that gave the British East India Company (EIC) the right to set up a trading post in Singapore. In exchange, Sultan Hussein was to receive a yearly sum of 5,000 Spanish dollars while the Temenggong would receive a yearly sum of 3,000 Spanish dollars...Sultan Hussein, who was in Riau at the time, was then brought to Singapore for the signing of the Singapore Treaty...On 6 February 1819, Stamford Raffles, Temenggong Abdu’r Rahman and Sultan Hussein Shah of Johor signed a treaty that gave the British East India Company (EIC) the right to set up a trading post in Singapore...The ceremony during which the treaty was signed was attended by the people on the island at the time. Among those present were Chinese planters, Malays, as well as the orang laut...The treaty was written in English on the left side and Malay on the right. It gave legal backing for the EIC to “maintain a factory or factories on any part of His Highness’s hereditary Dominions”...The British pledged to assist the Sultan in the event of external attacks but not to get involved in internal disputes. The Sultan, in turn, agreed to protect the EIC against enemies. The Sultan and Temenggong also agreed that they would “not enter into any treaty with any other nation… nor admit or consent to the settlement in any part of their Dominions of any other power European or American”. Thus, the treaty protected the interests of both the British and the Malay rulers.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Stamford Raffles's landing in Singapore". Singapore Infopedia (英文). 新加坡國家圖書館管理局. 原先內容歸檔喺28 January 2023. Stamford Raffles landed in Singapore on 28 January 1819. Travelling on the Indiana with a squadron that included the schooner Enterprise, he anchored at St John’s Island at 4.00 pm on 28 January 1819 and met with Temenggong Abdul Rahman...30 Jan 1819: A draft agreement is penned between the Temenggong and the British, and the Union Jack is raised with little ceremony. 1 Feb 1819: Sultan Hussein (Tunku Long) arrives from Riau....6 Feb 1819: The Singapore Treaty is signed between Raffles, the Sultan and the Temenggong, with commanders from the accompanying seven ships witnessing the event. Farquhar is appointed Resident and Commandant under the authority of Raffles, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen. The Union Jack is officially raised. This date is recognised as the official founding of Singapore.
  3. "Record of the 1819 Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, Singapore, 1841, ink on paper". Roots (英文). 新加坡國家文物局. 原先內容歸檔喺15 January 2023. The Treaty of Friendship and Alliance was signed on 6 February 1819 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, representing the British East India Company (EIC) and Singapore's Malay rulers, Sultan Hussein and the Temenggong Abdul Rahman. The treaty granted the British EIC the exclusive right to establish a 'factory', or trading post on Singapore island in exchange for monetary compensation and British military protection for the Malay rulers...The treaty was written in English and Jawi with text in both languages presented side by side.
  4. "Exhibition: On paper – Singapore before 1867" (PDF). Book SG (英文). 新加坡國家圖書館管理局. 原先內容歸檔 (PDF)喺16 June 2022. Scribal copy of 1819 Treaty of Friendship and Alliance (also known as the Treaty of Singapore)
  5. "The Padang". Roots (英文). National Heritage Board (新加坡國家文物局). 原先內容歸檔喺7 December 2022. In Munshi Abdullah’s account of the 1819 landing, an “open space” was described where The Arts House presently stands. The open space was recorded as a settlement that included the Temenggong’s house; it may also have been the same “open space” where Sultan Hussein Shah and Stamford Raffles later signed the 1819 treaty.
  6. "A History of The Padang". BiblioAsia (英文). National Library Board (新加坡國家圖書館管理局). 原先內容歸檔喺27 September 2022. On 6 February 1819, in the presence of Farquhar, the temenggong and a company of sepoys, Raffles signed a treaty with the newly installed Sultan Husain Mohamed Shah of Singapore that allowed the British to establish a trading post on the island. At the time, the southeastern edge of The Plain – as the Padang was then known – formed part of Singapore’s original shoreline.
  7. "Padang to be gazetted as Singapore's 75th national monument on National Day". Channel News Asia (亞洲新聞台) (英文). 8 August 2022. 原先內容歸檔喺30 November 2022. "Some evidence suggests that the Padang could have been the site of negotiations between the British East India Company and the Sultan of Johore and Temenggong leading up to the eventual signing of the treaty on Feb 6, 1819, which allowed the establishment of the settlement of Singapore," said NHB in a press release.
  8. Lee, Kuan Yew. "SPEECH BY THE PRIME MINISTER AT THE BANQUET GIVEN BY THE SINGAPORE INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE TO MARK THE 150TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOUNDING OF SINGAPORE – 6TH FEBRUARY, 1969" (PDF). 原著 (PDF)喺24 September 2021歸檔.