嗚嗚聲喇

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去: 定向搵嘢

嗚嗚聲喇(Vuvuzela,茨瓦納話又叫做Lepatata),又叫嗡嗡祖拉巫巫茲拉嗚嗚聲喇呼呼塞拉嗚嗚祖拉呼呼些拿非洲笛、或者嗚嗚號,係種大約長一米嘅號角。南非嘅球迷成日響足球比賽嘅時候吹呢隻號角[1],吹響嗚嗚聲喇要有咁上下嘅唇部技巧同肺活量;吹嘅時候,會發單 B♭調,有啲似霧笛或者大笨象嘅叫聲。

禁唔禁嗚嗚聲喇已經拗起嚟[2]。啲聲可能會永久損害聽覺[3],同時亦有一啲安全問題,好似會令響球場嘅觀眾聽唔到緊急疏散嘅宣佈[4],以及比咳同吶喊重易導致感冒同流感病毒嘅大規模傳播[5][6]

2010年FIFA世界盃某啲實況播音員將嗚嗚聲喇嘅聲稱為「令人煩躁」、「一班好嘈嘅大笨象響度亂走」[7]、「一班好嘈嘅蝗蟲」[8] 、「就嚟俾人劏嘅山羊叫聲」[9]和「有啲好嬲蜜蜂嘅超大蜂箱」[10]。呢種樂器嘅響度可以去到127分貝[11],對未作保護嘅人耳嚟講係有極大傷害[12]。2010年6月14日一種新型嘅嗚嗚聲喇問世,聲稱稱通過調整唇片令到佢嘅音量下降咗20分貝[11]

起源[編輯]

呢種膠喇叭響1970年代起源於墨西哥體育館 [未記出處或冇根據]。原本係用造嘅,嗚嗚聲喇響1990年代響南非走紅。著名嘅凱澤酋長足球會球迷Freddie "Saddam" Maake 話早喺1965年,去咗橡皮吹嘴,發明咗用造嘅,用響單車嘅喇叭。後嚟佢發現呢個吹嘴太短,於是就加咗個長啲嘅管。Maake有影響19世紀70年代同80年代嘅南非當地比賽,同1998年FIFA世界盃用鋁造嘅嗚嗚聲喇嘅相。佢話,後嚟當局認為呢種鋁造嘅嗚嗚聲喇好危險,所以佢搵到間塑膠公司,造咗用造嘅嗚嗚聲喇[13]

2001年,南非公司馬辛斯丹運動公司開始批量生產膠造嘅嗚嗚聲喇[14][15]。間公司嘅所有人尼爾•範•斯卡爾奎克響2001年獲得南非啤有限公司嘅踢星獎[16]

亦有人覺得嗚嗚聲喇源於非洲號角樂器kudu,但係係有爭議嘅[17][14]。成場比賽裏面,支持者通過猛咁吹嗚嗚聲喇嚟打擊對手[18][19]

2005年,著名南非黑人專欄作家、前體育記者Jon Qwelane話嗚嗚聲喇令佢放棄觀看現場比賽,又將佢叫做「嚟自地獄嘅樂器」,又叫2010年世界盃足球賽禁止使用呢種樂器[20]

詞語嘅由來[編輯]

關於「嗚嗚聲喇」詞語嘅由來係有爭議嘅,佢起源於祖魯話,意思係發出「溫溫」嘅噪音或者嚟自南非俚語,同「沖涼」呢個詞語有啲似[14]

法律爭議[編輯]

2010年初嘅拿撒勒浸信會成員話嗚嗚聲喇屬於佢哋嘅教堂,又以採取法律措施威脅,要啲球迷停止響世界盃比賽裏面用嗚嗚聲喇[21]

2009年國際足聯聯合會杯[編輯]

參考[編輯]

  1. V is for Vuvuzela. FIFA. . 喺September 9, 2008搵到;. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Makhaye, Chris. Blasts of joy as vuvuzelas unbanned. IOL. July 13, 2008. 
  3. World Cup horn risks permanent damage to hearing: study. Associated Press. June 8, 2010. 喺June 11, 2010搵到;. 
  4. Are vuvuzelas a safety risk?. IOL. May 27, 2010. 
  5. Snyman, Mia. Study: Vuvuzela could spread colds and flu. Associated Press. June 10, 2010. 喺June 11, 2010搵到;. 
  6. Presence, Chantall. SPCA worried by vuvuzelas. iafrica.com. June 10, 2010. 喺June 11, 2010搵到;. 
  7. The World Cup noise that annoys. Sydney Morning Herald. June 4, 2010. 喺June 11, 2010搵到;. 
  8. Clarke, Liz. World Cup ready to open in South Africa and vuvuzelas will make plenty of noise. The Washington Post. June 6, 2010. 喺June 11, 2010搵到;. "several coaches and players called for its banning, saying the din made it impossible to communicate on the pitch. Others claimed the vuvuzela posed a health hazard, stood to overwhelm TV broadcasts and was annoying, to boot. Why play the beautiful game, detractors asked, amid such horrible noise?" 
  9. Makhanya, Mondli. Nothing kills the joy of soccer like a bunch of wailing vuvuzelas. The Times. May 30, 2010. 喺June 11, 2010搵到;. 
  10. Brunt, Stephen. The happy chaos of Soccer City. The Globe and Mail. June 11, 2010. 喺June 11, 2010搵到;. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 New vuvuzelas turn down volume. Sport24. 2010-06-14.  已忽略未知參數|retrieved=(建議用|accessdate=) (詳情)
  12. Hall, Swanepoel. Football match spectator sound exposure and effect on hearing: A pretest-post-test study. SAMJ: South African Medical Journal. April 2010. 
  13. Moyo, Phathisani. 8, 2010-vuvuzela-creator-blown-off Vuvuzela Creator Blown Off. Mail & Guardian. January 8, 2010. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Vuvuzela: SA football's beautiful noise. SouthAfrica.info. . 喺September 9, 2008搵到;. 
  15. The Boogieblast Vuvuzela. . 喺September 9, 2008搵到;. 
  16. SAB moves to protect vuvuzela. Fin24. May 19, 2004. 
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  20. 'Ban the vuvuzela' News24/Sunday Sun
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  23. 引用錯誤 無效嘅<ref>標籤; 無文字提供於名為ESPN_Soccernet嘅參照
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  25. FIFA verbiedt lange vuvuzela's. June 10, 2010. 喺June 10, 2010搵到; Dutch. 
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  27. Fifa to discuss vuvuzela future. BBC SPORT. 18 June 2009. 
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  29. 29.0 29.1 (AFP) – 9 hours ago. AFP: World Cup organiser mulls vuvuzela ban. Google.com. . 喺June 13, 2010搵到;. 
  30. DPA. The Hindu : Sport / Football : It is impossible to communicate, it’s like being deaf: Messi. Beta.thehindu.com. . 喺June 13, 2010搵到;. 
  31. Ronaldo hits out at vuvuzelas | Radio Netherlands Worldwide. Rnw.nl. . 喺June 13, 2010搵到;. 
  32. Valenti, Elio. Buzz off, vuvuzelas!. New York Post. June 13, 2010. 
  33. Organizers consider silencing vuvuzelas. ESPN Soccernet. . 喺14 June 2010搵到;. 
  34. Could the Vuvuzela Be Banned From World Cup? at. Abcnews.go.com. . 喺2010-06-15搵到;. 
  35. Raucous vuvuzela here to stay: Sport: Sport: 2010 World Cup: Tournament News. Sport24.co.za. 2010-06-07. 喺2010-06-15搵到;. 
  36. Vuvuzela drowns out diversity of soccer songs. Times LIVE. . 喺2010-06-15搵到;. 
  37. FIFA World Cup 2010: Opening Ceremony Kicks Off Tournament in South Africa - ABC News. Abcnews.go.com. 2010-06-11. 喺2010-06-15搵到;. 
  38. Moore, Matthew. World Cup 2010: 'anti-vuvuzela filter' could cancel out noise of horns at. Telegraph.co.uk. . 喺2010-06-15搵到;. 
  39. Matjila, Tsepho. Hands off our Vuvuzelas. Sport24. June 14, 2010. 喺June 14, 2010搵到;. 
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  42. Kelso, Paul. World Cup: Hoooonnnk! Its time for killjoys to stop moaning and embrace the vuvuzelaoo. Telegraph Blogs. June 14, 2010. 喺June 14, 2010搵到;. 
  43. Vuvuzelas defended via Twitter by Fifa boss Sepp Blatter. metro.co.uk Sports. June 14, 2010. 
  44. No vuvuzelas inside Sandton City Eyewitness News
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  47. Vuvuzelas unplugged for some Sport24

睇埋[編輯]