羅素

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羅素本人

伯特蘭 亞瑟 威廉 羅素,羅素伯爵三世(Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell,1872年5月18號1970年2月2號),OM,FRS,係個英國哲學家,邏輯學家,數學家,歷史學家,社會評論家[1]。佢成世人唔同時間,認為自己係一個自由主義社會主義和平主義者,佢亦承認,深層次來講,佢全部都唔係[2]。喺 Monmouthshire 出世,家族係英國顯赫嘅貴族[3]

羅素帶領二十世紀初嘅英國「對抗理想主義[4]。羅素同埋佢前輩弗雷格(Gottlob Frege)、佢學生維根斯坦創立分析哲學。亦譽為廿世紀首屈一指嘅邏輯學家[1]。佢夾埋 A.N.懷特海一齊寫嘅《數學原理》,企圖將數學建基於邏輯學。佢嘅哲學散文 On Denoting 好多人認同係一個「哲學嘅範式」(paradigm of philosophy)[5]。羅素嘅理論同著作對邏輯學,數學集合論,語言學,計算機科學,哲學,尤其是語言哲學認識論形而上學有相當大嘅影響。

羅素出名反戰,佢反帝國主義[6][7],亦因為喺第一次世界大戰嗰時為和平主義而入監[8]。之後。佢反對希特拉、批評史太林極權主義,又抨擊美國介入越戰,重支持裁減核武[9]。1950年,羅素獲諾貝爾文學獎,嚟「表揚佢多變同重要著作之中,宣揚人道主義嘅理想同埋思想嘅自由」[10]

[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Bertrand Russell", 1 May 2003
  2. "I have imagined myself in turn a Liberal, a Socialist, or a Pacifist, but I have never been any of these things, in any profound sense." —Autobiography, p. 260.
  3. Hestler, Anna (2001). Wales. Marshall Cavendish. 第 53頁. ISBN 978-0-7614-1195-6. 
  4. Russell and G. E. Moore broke themselves free from British Idealism which, for nearly 90 years, had dominated British philosophy. Russell would later recall in "My Mental Development" that "with a sense of escaping from prison, we allowed ourselves to think that grass is green, that the sun and stars would exist if no one was aware of them ..."—Russell B, (1944) "My Mental Development", in Schilpp, Paul Arthur: "The Philosophy of Betrand Russell", New York: Tudor, 1951, pp 3–20.
  5. Ludlow, Peter, "Descriptions", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/descriptions/
  6. Richard Rempel (1979). "From Imperialism to Free Trade: Couturat, Halevy and Russell's First Crusade". Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press. 40 (3): 423–443. doi:10.2307/2709246. JSTOR 2709246. 
  7. Bertrand Russell (1988) [1917]. Political Ideals. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10907-8. 
  8. Samoiloff, Louise Cripps. C.L.R. James: Memories and Commentaries, p. 19. Associated University Presses, 1997. ISBN 0-8453-4865-5
  9. The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950 — Bertrand Russell: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950 was awarded to Bertrand Russell "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought". Retrieved on 22 March 2013.