跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢

Hanlon把剃刀(Hanlon's razor)係句格言,話:

唔好將一樣可以用蠢解釋嘅嘢當做惡意 [1]


當蠢已經夠解釋既時候,唔好假設惡意 [2]


據 Joseph Bigler 話 [3],呢句嘢原先來自一條叫 Robert J. Hanlon 嘅友,佢提交呢句嘢畀一本1980年出版嘅收集關於 梅菲定律 嘅笑話嘅書:「摩菲律第二集,點解啲嘢會出錯嘅更多理由」[4]

類似嘅嘢講出現喺 Robert A. Heinlein1941年嘅短篇 《Logic of Empire》:(「你將蠢嘅結果歸究咗到邪惡度」[5]);呢樣已經喺1996年見到(係 Bigler 指出 Robert J. Hanlon citation 之前五年),而第一次被引用喺 4.0.0 版嘅 Jargon File [6], 重推測, Hanlon's Razor 可能係 "Heinlein's Razor" 嘅變樣。此後,「Heinlein 把剃刀」被定義做「唔好將用就解釋到嘅嘢歸究到惡,但亦唔好完全排除惡意。」 或者「... 但仍然要𥄫實 [7]。」嘅變奏[未記出處或冇根據]

好幾種文學作品睇過,蠢比惡更加擺佈人。歌德本《少年維特嘅煩惱》 (1774) 提到:「...誤會同忽略比詭計同惡響呢個世界產生更多混亂。無論如何,後兩者(即係詭計同惡--譯者註)肯定少見好多 [8]。」有句可能源自愛因斯坦、但亦好可能係杜撰嘅嘢,講嘅威力:「得兩樣嘢係無限嘅,宇宙同埋人類嘅蠢,而關於宇宙我唔肯定 [9]。」 比較下席勒嘅「對住蠢,啲神自己白白咁鬬爭」[10]阿西莫夫本小說 en:The Gods Themselves 個名就係來自上面席勒句嘢。好似,Elbert Hubbard 又話過:「天才可能有限,但蠢唔會就咁被限 [11]」。

有首類似嘅 epigram,可追溯到 William James 同埋其他人 [未記出處或冇根據]

德國將軍 Kurt von Hammerstein-EquordTruppenführung1933年)留意到蠢嘅實際風險。渠話:「我分我啲軍官做四類;精、懶、勤、蠢。 呢啲質素每一軍官都有至少兩種。又精又勤嗰啲適合做最高參謀(staff appointments)。又蠢又懶嘅可用得到。 而又精又懶嘅就啱做最高指揮,佢有應付任何情況嘅性格同膽量(temperament and nerves)。但又蠢又勤嗰啲,係種威脅,要即刻整走 [12]!」

Cock-up 論[編輯]

一常見嘅英文短版,Sir Bernard Ingham 話齋:「先 cock-up 後陰謀 [13] 」。Sir Bernard 嘅全文係「好多記者都落入咗政府陰謀論。我保證你聽,渠地會寫出更準嘅嘢,如果渠地黏實 cock-up論 [14]。」



  1. Never attribute to malice that which can be adequately explained by stupidity.
  2. Never assume malice when stupidity will suffice.
  3. In an e-mail to Quentin Stafford-Fraser 互聯網檔案館歸檔,歸檔日期2008年11月18號,., one Joseph E. Bigler claims that Robert J. Hanlon was a real person and did indeed invent this quotation. This is followed up by a later note which leads us to Murphy's Law Book Two, More Reasons Why Things Go Wrong (ISBN 0-417-06450-0); not to be confused with Murphy's Law #2 (ISBN 0-8431-0674-3). Note that publisher of these books, Price Stern Sloan, was acquired by Putnam Berkley Group (history 互聯網檔案館歸檔,歸檔日期2006年4月30號,.) in 1993.
  4. Murphy's Law Book Two, More Reasons Why Things Go Wrong, ISBN 0-417-06450-0
  5. "You have attributed conditions to villainy that simply result from stupidity"
  6. . 原著喺2007年8月27號歸檔. 喺2007年10月11號搵到.
  7. Never attribute to malice that which can be adequately explained by stupidity, but don't rule out malice. 或 ... but keep your eyes open.
  8. "...misunderstandings and neglect create more confusion in this world than trickery and malice. At any rate, the last two are certainly much less frequent."
  9. "Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the universe."
  10. "Against stupidity, the gods themselves contend in vain."
  11. "Genius may have its limitations, but stupidity is not thus handicapped."[未記出處或冇根據]
  12. "I divide my officers into four classes; the clever, the lazy, the industrious, and the stupid. Each officer possesses at least two of these qualities. Those who are clever and industrious are fitted for the highest staff appointments. Use can be made of those who are stupid and lazy. The man who is clever and lazy however is for the very highest command; he has the temperament and nerves to deal with all situations. But whoever is stupid and industrious is a menace and must be removed immediately!")-- Bruce Condell, David T. Zabecki, editors and translators, On the German Art of War: Truppenführung, Lynne Rienner, 2001
  13. "cock-up before conspiracy"
  14. "Many journalists have fallen for the conspiracy theory of government. I do assure you that they would produce more accurate work if they adhered to the cock-up theory."http://www.whatquote.com/quotes/Bernard-Ingham/9374-Many-journalists-hav.htm 互聯網檔案館歸檔,歸檔日期2007年10月14號,.