Template:引網/doc

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
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寫維基百科時經常需要參考網絡上嘅各種資源,所以多用呢個模可以將所參考嘅來源記低,以便瀏覽者同之後嘅編者搵到呢啲來源資料。

呢個模係用來列明維基條目中非新聞來源 嘅(引用新聞請睇{{引新聞}})。

模用法[編輯]

常用格式[編輯]

常用格式(帶有當前查閱日期)

{{Cite web |url= |title= |accessdate=2019-11-15 |work= |publisher= |date= }}

使用作者姓名參數(名喺前,姓喺後)同共同作者參數(帶有當前查閱日期)

{{Cite web |url= |title= |accessdate=2019-11-15 |last= |first= |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher=}}

使用作者參數(帶有當前查閱日期)

{{Cite web |url= |title= |accessdate=2019-11-15 |author= |date= |work= |publisher=}}

使用非連式查閱日期格式同最終作者、最初作者參數

{{Cite web |url= |title= |accessmonthday= |accessyear= |last= |first= |date= |work= |publisher= }}

使用非連式查閱日期格式同作者參數

{{Cite web |url= |title= |accessmonthday= |accessyear= |author= |date= |work= |publisher= }}

全部參數[編輯]

呢個模參數可打橫亦可打豎排列,使用時複製下邊嘅文字,並刪除唔需要嘅參數。

打橫排列嘅全部參數
{{Cite web |url= |title= |accessdate=2019-11-15 |accessmonthday= |accessdaymonth= |accessyear= |author= |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= |year= |month= |format= |work= |publisher= |pages= |language= |doi= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote= }}
打豎排列嘅全部參數
{{Cite web
|url= 
|title= 
|accessdate= 
|accessdaymonth= 
|accessmonthday= 
|accessyear= 
|author= 
|last= 
|first= 
|authorlink= 
|coauthors= 
|date= 
|year= 
|month= 
|trans_title = 
|format= 
|work= 
|publisher= 
|pages= 
|language= 
|doi= 
|archiveurl= 
|archivedate= 
|quote= 
}}

必填參數[編輯]

  • url:引用項嘅網址
  • title: 引用項嘅標題

選填參數[編輯]

  • author:作者嘅名
    • last works with first to produce last, first
    • authorlink works either with author or with last & first to link to the appropriate wikipedia article. Does not work with URLs.
    • coauthors: allows additional authors
  • date:原文出版或發表嘅日期,請用包括年、月、日嘅完整日期格式並同所寫條目風格保持一致。
    • 或用另一種組合:year(出版年)同month(出版月)。如果你有詳細嘅日期,請用date參數。呢種方式亦唔使加維基連結,佢會自動被系統加上。
  • format:檔案格式,例如PDF。呢項為空時缺省認為係HTML格式。
  • 'work:如果呢個引用項包含係一個更大嘅作品入面,譬如一本書、一份雜誌或一個網站,咁請寫低呢個作品嘅名。
  • publisher:如果有出版者--例如呢個網站係由某個政府部門、教育機構或公司來提供運作嘅,可以喺呢度輸入佢嘅名。
  • pages: pp. 5–7: first page and optional last page. This is for listing the pages relevant to the citation, not the total number of pages in the book.
  • language: language of publication (don't specify "English" as this is the default).
  • doi: A digital object identifier for the document, such as 10.1038/news070508-7
    • Doilabel: If the doi contains some characters that must be escaped, use "doilabel" for the unescaped version. See {{doi}}: "id" is equivalent to "doi" and "label" is "doilabel"
  • archiveurl: URL of the archive location of the item (requires archivedate)
  • archivedate: Date when the item was archived (requires archiveurl), in ISO 8601 YYYY-MM-DD format, e.g. 2006-02-17. Must not be wikilinked; it will be linked automatically.
  • quote: Relevant quote from online item.
  • 喺下邊嘅選項中揀一種查閱日期格式以符合所寫條目嘅風格。
  • accessdate: Full date when item was accessed, in ISO 8601 YYYY-MM-DD format, for example "accessdate = 2019-11-15". Must not be wikilinked

For producing a non-wikilinked date of retrieval:

  • accessmonthday and accessyear: Month and day when item was accessed, for example "accessmonthday = May 10", and year when item was accessed, for example "accessyear = 2006". Produces: Retrieved on May 10, 2006.
  • accessdaymonth and accessyear: Month and day when item was accessed, for example "accessdaymonth= 10 May", and year when item was accessed, for example "accessyear = 2006". Produces: Retrieved on 10 May 2006.

Examples[編輯]

Some standard use cases
  • {{cite web |author=Doe, John |title=My favorite things part II |publisher=Open Publishing |date=[[2005-04-30]] |work=Encyclopedia of things |url=http://www.example.org/ |accessdate=2005-07-06 }}
    Doe, John (2005-04-30). "My favorite things part II". Encyclopedia of things. Open Publishing. 喺2005-07-06搵到.  檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情)
  • {{cite web |author=Doe, John |title=My favorite things part II |date=[[2005-04-30]] |work=Encyclopedia of things |url=http://www.example.org/ |accessdate=2005-07-06 }}
    Doe, John (2005-04-30). "My favorite things part II". Encyclopedia of things. 喺2005-07-06搵到.  檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情)
  • {{cite web |author=Doe, John |title=My favorite things part II |date=[[2005-04-30]] |url=http://www.example.org/ |accessdate=2005-07-06 }}
    Doe, John (2005-04-30). "My favorite things part II". 喺2005-07-06搵到.  檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情)
  • {{cite web |author=Doe, John |title=My favorite things part II |url=http://www.example.org/ |accessdate=2005-07-06 }}
    Doe, John. "My favorite things part II". 喺2005-07-06搵到. 
  • {{cite web |title=My favorite things part II |url=http://www.example.org/ |accessdate=2005-07-06 }}
    "My favorite things part II". 喺2005-07-06搵到. 
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.nfl.com/fans/ |title=Digest of rules |publisher= National Football League |accessdate=2005-07-06 }}
    "Digest of rules". National Football League. 喺2005-07-06搵到. 
Non-linking date of retrieval (using accessmonthday and accessyear)
  • {{cite web |title=My favorite things part II |work=Encyclopedia of things |url=http://www.example.org/ |accessmonthday=July 6 |accessyear=2005 }}
    "My favorite things part II". Encyclopedia of things.  未知參數|accessyear= ignored (建議用|access-date=) (詳情); 未知參數|accessmonthday=已忽略 (詳情)
Using format
  • {{cite web |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |publisher=International Narcotics Control Board |url=http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2005-07-06 }}
    "List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. 喺2005-07-06搵到. 
language
  • {{cite web |author=Joliet, François |title=Honnit soit qui mal y pense |date=[[2005-04-30]] |url=http://www.example.org/ |accessdate=2005-07-06 |language=French }}
    Joliet, François (2005-04-30). "Honnit soit qui mal y pense" (用French寫). 喺2005-07-06搵到.  檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情)
coauthors
  • {{cite web |first=John |last=Doe |coauthors=Smith, Peter; Smythe, Jim |title=My favorite things part II |publisher=Open Publishing |date=[[2005-04-30]] |work=Encyclopedia of things |url=http://www.example.org/ |accessdate=2006-05-16 }}
    Doe, John; Smith, Peter; Smythe, Jim (2005-04-30). "My favorite things part II". Encyclopedia of things. Open Publishing. 喺2006-05-16搵到.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (詳情); 檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情)
No author
  • {{cite web |title=My favorite things part II |publisher=Open Publishing |date=[[2005-04-30]] |work=Encyclopedia of things |url=http://www.example.org/ | accessdate=2006-05-16 }}
    "My favorite things part II". Encyclopedia of things. Open Publishing. 2005-04-30. 喺2006-05-16搵到.  檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情)
No author, no publisher
  • {{cite web |title=My favorite things part II |date=[[2005-04-30]] |work=Encyclopedia of things |url=http://www.example.org/ |accessdate=2005-07-06 }}
    "My favorite things part II". Encyclopedia of things. 2005-04-30. 喺2005-07-06搵到.  檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情)
  • {{cite web |title=My favorite things part II |date=[[2005-04-30]] |url=http://www.example.org/ |accessdate=2005-07-06}}
    "My favorite things part II". 2005-04-30. 喺2005-07-06搵到.  檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情)
Using archiveurl and archivedate to refer to items that went away but are available from an archive site
  • {{cite web |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |date=[[2005-04-30]] |url=http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2005-07-06 |archiveurl=http://www.archive.org/2005-09-11/www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |archivedate=2005-09-11 }}
    "List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). 2005-04-30. (原先內容 (PDF)喺2005-09-11歸檔). 喺2005-07-06搵到.  檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情)
  • {{cite web |url=http://joanjettbadrep.com/cgi-bin/fullStory.cgi?archive=currnews&story=20060405-01shore.htm |title=Interview with Maggie Downs |date=[[2006-03-31]] |publisher=The Desert Sun |archiveurl=http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:JAxf4v-pQmgJ:joanjettbadrep.com/cgi-bin/fullStory.cgi%3Farchive%3Dcurrnews%26story%3D20060405-01shore.htm |archivedate=2006-04-26 }}
    "Interview with Maggie Downs". The Desert Sun. 2006-03-31. (原先內容喺2006-04-26歸檔).  檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情)
Using quote
  • {{cite web |title=My favorite things part II |work=Encyclopedia of things |url=http://www.example.org/ |accessdate=2005-07-06 |quote=Lorem ipsum dolor. }}
    "My favorite things part II". Encyclopedia of things. 喺2005-07-06搵到. Lorem ipsum dolor. 
Omitting the title in error
  • {{cite web |work=Encyclopedia of things |url=http://www.example.org/ |accessdate=2005-07-06 |quote=Lorem ipsum dolor. }}
    Encyclopedia of things http://www.example.org/. 喺2005-07-06搵到. Lorem ipsum dolor.  缺少或空白|title= (詳情)

TemplateData[編輯]

Formats a citation to a website using the provided information such as URL and title. Used only for sources that are not correctly described by the specific citation templates for books, journals, news sources, etc.

模參數

呢個模,建議一行過寫晒所有參數。

參數描述狀態
URLurlURL

The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type "http://..." or maybe even the  protocol relative scheme "//..."

範例
https://www.metacritic.com//...
字串必填
標題title

The title of the source page on the website; will display with quotation marks added. Usually found at the top of you web browser. Not the name of the website.

字串必填
Last namelastlast1authorauthor1author1-lastauthor-lastsurname1author-last1subject1surnameauthor-lastsubject

The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

建議
First namefirstgivenauthor-firstfirst1given1author-first1author1-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

建議
Author linkauthorlinkauthor-linksubjectlinksubject-linkauthorlink1author-link1author1-linksubjectlink1author1linksubject-link1subject1-linksubject1link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

可選
Authors listauthorspeoplehostcredits

List of authors as a free form list. Use of this parameter is discouraged, "lastn" to "firstn" are preferable. Warning: do not use if last or any of its aliases are used.

字串可選
Last name 2last2author2

The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'.

可選
First name 2first2

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

可選
Author link 2authorlink2author2-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

可選
Source datedate

Full date when the source was published; if unknown, use access-date instead; do not wikilink

日子建議
Year of publicationyear

Year of the source being referenced; use 'date' instead, if month and day are also known

字串可選
Editor last nameeditor-lasteditor1-lasteditoreditors

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors.

可選
Editor first nameeditor-firsteditor1-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-first'

可選
Editor linkeditor-linkeditor1-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

可選
Editor last name 2editor2-lasteditor2

The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

可選
Editor first name 2editor2-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

可選
Editor link 2editor2-linkeditor2linkeditorlink2

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor.

可選
網站websitework

Name of the website; may be wikilinked; will display in italics. Having both 'Publisher' and 'Website' is redundant in most cases

範例
Rotten Tomatoes
字串建議
Series identifierseries

Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal

字串可選
Publisherpublisher

Name of the publisher; may be wikilinked. Having both 'Publisher' and 'Website' is redundant in most cases.

範例
"CBS Interactive" which owns "Metacritic.com"
字串可選
Location of publicationlocation

Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place; alias of 'place'

字串可選
Pagepage

Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

字串可選
Pagespages

Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source); displays after 'pp.'

字串可選
Atat

May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

字串可選
Languagelanguage

The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templates

字串可選
Script titlescript-title

For titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...

字串可選
Translated titletrans-titletrans_title

An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

字串可選
Typetype

Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

字串可選
Formatformat

Format of the work referred to by 'url'; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

字串可選
Othersothers

Used to record other (non-author) contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'. Only one ''others'' parameter is allowed: e.g., 'Illustrated by Jane Doe; Translated by John Smith'

字串可選
Original yearorig-yearorigyear

Original year of publication; provide specifics

字串可選
Place of publicationpublication-place

Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

字串可選
Publication datepublication-date

Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink

字串可選
Published viavia

Name of the entity hosting the original copy of the work, if different from the publisher. This entity is committed not to alter the work. GitHub, SourceForge, CodePlex, YouTube, Vimeo, Dailymotion and Netflix are examples of service dedicated to acting on behalf of the publisher, but Archive.org, Wikimedia Commons and grc.com have done this on certain occasions.

範例
"GitHub", which hosts "Visual Studio Code" on behalf of "Microsoft"
字串可選
No ppnopp

Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

字串可選
arXiv identifierarxiv

An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

字串可選
ASINasin

Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

字串可選
ASIN TLDasin-tld

ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

字串可選
Bibcodebibcode

Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

字串可選
biorXivbiorxiv

biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

可選
CiteSeerXciteseerx

CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

可選
DOIdoi

Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

字串可選
DOI broken datedoi-broken-date

The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

字串可選
ISBNisbn

International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

字串可選
ISSNissn

International Standard Serial Number; 8 characters; may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen

字串可選
jfm codejfm

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

字串可選
JSTORjstor

JSTOR identifier

字串可選
LCCNlccn

Library of Congress Control Number

字串可選
MRmr

Mathematical Reviews identifier

字串可選
OCLCoclc

Online Computer Library Center number

字串可選
OLol

Open Library identifier

字串可選
OSTIosti

Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

字串可選
PMCpmc

PubMed Center article number

字串可選
PMIDpmid

PubMed Unique Identifier

字串可選
RFCrfc

Request for Comments number

字串可選
SSRNssrn

Social Science Research Network

字串可選
Zblzbl

Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

字串可選
idid

A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

字串可選
URL access levelurl-access

Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

字串可選
Archive URLarchive-urlarchiveurl

The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archive-date'

字串建議
Archive datearchive-datearchivedate

Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

字串建議
Dead URLdead-urldeadurl

If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

字串建議
URL access dateaccess-dateaccessdate

The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

日子建議
Quotequote

Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; must include terminating punctuation

字串可選
Refref

An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv template

字串可選
Postscriptpostscript

The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined

預設
.
字串可選
Subscription requiredsubscription

When set to yes, displays “(subscription required)” to indicate an online source that requires subscription

字串可選
Registration requiredregistration

When set to yes, displays “(registration required)” to indicate an online source that requires registration

字串可選
Separatorseparator

The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as   do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark

預設
.
字串可選
Lay URLlayurl

URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'

字串可選
Lay sourcelaysource

Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

字串可選
Lay datelaydate

Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

字串可選
Author maskauthor-mask

Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead

字串可選
Last name 3last3author3

The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.

可選
First name 3first3

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

可選
Author link 3authorlink3author3-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

可選
Last name 4last4author4

The surname of the fourth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink4'.

可選
First name 4first4

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth author; don't wikilink.

可選
Author link 4authorlink4author4-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth author.

可選
Last name 5last5author5

The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink5'.

可選
First name 5first5

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

可選
Author link 5authorlink5author5-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth author.

可選
Last name 6last6author6

The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink6'.

可選
First name 6first6author6-link

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

可選
Author link 6authorlink6

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

可選
Last name 7last7author7

The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.

可選
First name 7first7

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

可選
Author link 7authorlink7author7-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

可選
Last name 8last8author8

The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink8'.

可選
First name 8first8

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

可選
Author link 8authorlink8author8-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

可選
Last name 9last9author9

The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

可選
First name 9first9

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

可選
Author link 9authorlink9author9-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

可選
Author name separatorauthor-name-separator

Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as   do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark

預設
,
字串可選
Author separatorauthor-separator

Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space; a space must be encoded as   do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark

預設
;
字串可選
Display authorsdisplay-authorsdisplayauthors

Number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used; default is to do so after 8 of 9 are listed.

預設
8
數字可選
Last author ampersandlastauthoramp

When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

字串可選
Editor last name 3editor3-lasteditor3

The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

可選
Editor first name 3editor3-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

可選
Editor link 3editor3-linkeditor3linkeditorlink3

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor.

可選
Editor last name 4editor4-lasteditor4

The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

可選
Editor first name 4editor4-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

可選
Editor link 4editor4-linkeditor4linkeditorlink4

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor.

可選
Editor last name 5editor5-lasteditor5

The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

可選
Editor first name 5editor5-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

可選
Editor link 5editor5-linkeditor5linkeditorlink5

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor.

可選
Editor last name 6editor6-lasteditor6

The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

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Editor first name 6editor6-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

可選
Editor link 6editor6-linkeditor6linkeditorlink6

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor.

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Editor last name 7editor7-lasteditor7

The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

可選
Editor first name 7editor7-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

可選
Editor link 7editor7-linkeditor7linkeditorlink7

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor.

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Editor last name 8editor8-lasteditor8

The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

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Editor first name 8editor8-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

可選
Editor link 8editor8-linkeditor8linkeditorlink8

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor.

可選
Editor last name 9editor9-lasteditor9

The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

可選
Editor first name 9editor9-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

可選
Editor link 9editor9-linkeditor9linkeditorlink9

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor.

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Editionedition

Specify the edition or revision of the source, when applicable. For example: '2nd' or '5.1'. What you supply here is suffixed by ' ed.'

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Bibcode access levelbibcode-access

If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

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DOI access leveldoi-access

If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

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HDL access levelhdl-access

If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

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Jstor access leveljstor-access

If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

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OpenLibrary access levelol-access

If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

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OSTI access levelosti-access

If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

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參見[編輯]