分心揸車

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
Jump to navigation Jump to search

分心揸車粵拼fan1 sam1 zaa1 ce1英文distracted driving)係指一個司機揸車嗰陣分心

分心揸車係一個受關注嘅問題:揸車要求個司機一路留意住路面情況,係一種要求持續性專注嘅工作;同時,揸車嘅過程又有好多事物可以搞到司機分心,例子包括車上面嘅收音機、想摟司機傾偈嘅乘客、以及司機嘅手機呀噉,而如果司機分咗心,搞到佢留意唔到路上面有個行人嘅話,後果可以好大件事[1]。事實係,有一份喺 2006 年做嘅研究試過喺馬路嗰度影住路面情況,發現喺 82% 嘅撞車事件同 67% 嘅近乎撞車事件當中,都有「司機喺事件打前 3 秒分心」嘅情況,分心原因可以係因為司機望咗第啲嘢、跌咗嘢食落地、或者傾緊電話等等[2]

研究[編輯]

因為噉,有唔少研究注意力認知科學家都會嘗試了解揸車嗰陣嘅多作業處理(multitasking)過程。喺呢類研究當中,研究者通常會搵班受試者返嚟,要佢哋喺一個實驗室入面玩模擬揸車,再睇吓分心會點樣影響受試者嘅表現。呢啲研究顯示,如果個司機一路揸車一路做第啲嘢(好似係聽收音機或者講電話),佢哋揸車嘅表現會變差:耷迫力嗰陣會反應慢啲、容易啲炒車、容易啲唔覺意衝咗過隔離線、以至係冇噉留意到路面狀況(事後冇噉能夠記得路上面出現過啲乜)呀噉[3][4]

一班人喺度玩模擬揸車;對分心揸車嘅研究多數會用類似嘅方法,並且量度受試者「耷迫力嗰陣嘅反應時間」等嘅變數,睇吓呢啲變數會受乜影響。

仲有進一步嘅實驗證據顯示,一路講電話一路揸車之所以衰真係因為注意力資源分散咗而引起嘅[5][6]:有實驗試過比較兩組嘅受試者,兩組都係一路講電話一路模擬揸車;兩組分別在於一組用手攞住部手機講,另一組用一個唔使搵手攞住嘅電話嚟講;呢啲研究發現,兩組受試者嘅表現一樣噉差-噉就表示咗一路講電話一路揸車之所以衰,唔係因為要搵手拎住手機而起嘅,更加進一步確立咗「一路講電話一路揸車之所以衰,係因為分散咗注意力嘅緣故」呢一個假說[7]

[編輯]

  1. Strayer, D. L.; Drews, F. A. (2007). "Multitasking in the automobile". In A. F. Kramer; D. A. Wiegmann; A. Kirlik. Attention: From Theory to Practice. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 121–33.
  2. Dingus, T. A., Klauer, S. G., Neale, V. L., Petersen, A., Lee, S. E., Sudweeks, J., et al. (2006). The 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study: Phase II. Results of the 100-Car Field Experiment (Interim Project Report for DTNH22- 00-C-07007, Task Order 6; Report No. DOT HS 810 593). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
  3. Salvucci, D D.; Taatgen, NA (2008). "Threaded cognition: An integrated theory of concurrent multitasking". Psychological Review. 115 (1): 101–30.
  4. Collet, C; Morel, M; Chapon, A; Petit, C (2009). "Physiological and behavioral changes associated to the management of secondary tasks while driving". Applied Ergonomics. 40 (6): 1041–6.
  5. Chabris; Simmons, D. J. (2010). The Invisible Gorilla and Other Ways Our Intuitions Deceive Us (C. F. ed.). New York: Crown.
  6. Folk, C. L. (2010). "Attention: Divided". In E. B. Goldstein. Encyclopedia of Perception. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 84–7.
  7. Strayer, DL; Cooper, JM; Turrill, J; Coleman, J; et al. (June 2013). "Measuring Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile" (PDF) (Research Report). AAA.