本體 (訊息科學)

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
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一個本體表達概念之間嘅關係(英文)。

本體(ontology)係一種知識表示方法[1]:一個本體會好似幅附圖噉,包含大柞概念(幅附圖包括咗哺乳動物鯨魚、同等等),指明嗮每一對概念之間嘅關係-鯨魚「屬於」哺乳動物、鯨魚「住喺」水入面、哺乳動物「屬於」動物... 等等。本體式嘅知識表示法喺好多實用領域上都有用,例如係喺臨床醫學上幫手做決定[2]、知識發現[3]、同埋好多其他方面[4]。於是學界發展咗網絡本體語言(Web Ontology Language)呢款程式語言專門攞嚟整本體[5]

以下呢段係一段用網絡本體語言表達嘅一個本體,用嚟描述一啲有關意大利薄餅嘅知識[1]

Namespace(p = <http://example.com/pizzas.owl#>)
Ontology( <http://example.com/pizzas.owl#>
   Class(p:Pizza partial
     restriction(p:hasBase someValuesFrom(p:PizzaBase)))
   DisjointClasses(p:Pizza p:PizzaBase)
   Class(p:NonVegetarianPizza complete
     intersectionOf(p:Pizza complementOf(p:VegetarianPizza)))
   ObjectProperty(p:isIngredientOf Transitive
     inverseOf(p:hasIngredient))
)

舉個例子說明,呢段碼 ObjectProperty 嗰行會同個程式指明個本體入面某啲物件嘅特性,呢行指令講咗幾樣嘢:首先,「係某某嘅原料」(isIngredientOf)呢個關係係有遞移性嘅(Transitive)-即係教部電腦,如果 A 係 B 嘅原料而 B 係 C 嘅原料,噉佢可以推斷 A 係 C 嘅原料;呢行指令仲表明咗「係某某嘅原料」係「原料包含咗」(hasIngredient)嘅反轉(inverse)-所以運用呢個本體嘅人工智能程式可以做(例如)「夏威夷薄餅原料包含咗菠蘿,所以菠蘿係夏威夷薄餅嘅原料」嘅推理。

[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 OWL Example with RDF Graph. Ontologies and Semantic Web.
  2. Kuperman, G. J.; Reichley, R. M.; Bailey, T. C. (1 July 2006). "Using Commercial Knowledge Bases for Clinical Decision Support: Opportunities, Hurdles, and Recommendations". Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 13 (4): 369–371.
  3. MCGARRY, KEN (1 December 2005). "A survey of interestingness measures for knowledge discovery". The Knowledge Engineering Review. 20 (1): 39.
  4. Bertini, M; Del Bimbo, A; Torniai, C (2006). "Automatic annotation and semantic retrieval of video sequences using multimedia ontologies". MM ‘06 Proceedings of the 14th ACM international conference on Multimedia. 14th ACM international conference on Multimedia. Santa Barbara: ACM. pp. 679–682.
  5. Sikos, Leslie F. (June 2017). Description Logics in Multimedia Reasoning. Cham: Springer.