寫實主義

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
(由現實主義跳轉過來)
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寫實主義畫作《Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet》(法文:《你好,曲伯先生》)

寫實主義粵拼se2 sat6 zyu2 ji3英文realism),又有叫自然主義naturalism),係 19 世紀中喺法國開展嘅一種藝術風格,主張藝術應該盡可能追求準確噉描述現實,避免喺作品當中加入任何人工化嘅嘢、誇大嘅線條、唔自然嘅色彩、或者超自然元素,所以寫實主義嘅畫作好多時望落甚至會似多過似畫。呢啲特色令寫實主義藝術同(例如)成日用誇張扭曲線條嘅表現主義(expressionism)或者主張虛幻同不真實嘅超現實主義(surrealism)成強烈嘅對比[1]

一件藝術品可以淨係局部噉跟從寫實主義:例如喺畫畫當中,一幅畫作可以強調喺題材同圖像上都要真實,幅作品明顯睇得出係畫緊一啲真實存在嘅嘢,而且個畫家會想盡力務求自己幅作品似一幅相,呢個特點喺好多 19 世紀嘅歐洲人像畫身上都可以睇到;另一方面,一個藝術家又可能會追求圖像上真實,但題材唔真實,例如幅作品畫神話入面嘅故事,但畫面依然追求好似一幅相噉[1]

寫實主義喺 1850 年代崛起:當時法國嘅藝術界受源自 18 世紀尾嘅浪漫主義(romanticism)主導住,浪漫主義追求以強烈嘅情感做藝術品嘅主導,而(追求客觀噉描述事物嘅)寫實主義好大程度上係對浪漫主義嘅一種反叛,及後寫實主義仲有影響法國嘅第啲藝術同擴展去喺正法國隔離、而且同樣講羅曼語族語言嘅意大利嗰度,對打後嘅意大利藝術影響深遠[2][3]

寫實主義畫作[編輯]

睇埋[編輯]

參考[編輯]

  • Blunt Anthony, Artistic Theory in Italy, 1450–1600, 1940 (refs to 1985 edn), OUP, ISBN 0-19-881050-4.
  • Dahlhaus, Carl (1985). Realism in Nineteenth-Century Music. Translated by Mary Whittall. Cambridge, London, New York, New Rochelle, Melbourne, Sydney: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26115-9. ISBN 978-0-521-27841-6 (pbk).
  • Dahlhaus, Carl (1989). Nineteenth-Century Music. Translated by J. Bradford Robinson. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07644-0.
  • Frisch, Walter (2005). German Modernism: Music and the Arts. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25148-9.'
  • Morris, Pam (2003). Realism. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-22938-8.
  • Needham, Gerald, "Naturalism." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press, accessed February 23, 2013, subscriber link
  • Raben, Hans, "Bellori's Art: The Taste and Distaste of a Seventeenth-Century Art Critic in Rome", Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art, Vol. 32, No. 2/3 (2006), pp. 126–46, Stichting voor Nederlandse Kunsthistorische Publicaties, JSTOR
  • Watt, Ian (1957). The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • West, Shearer (1996). The Bullfinch Guide to Art. UK: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. ISBN 978-0-8212-2137-2.

[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Finocchio, Ross. "Nineteenth-Century French Realism". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. online (October 2004)
  2. Zarrilli, Phillip; McConachie, Bruce; Williams, Gary Jay; Sorgenfrei, Carol (2010). Theatre Histories: An Introduction, 2nd edition. Oxon: Routledge. p. 389.
  3. Hayward, Susan. "Realism" in Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts (Third Edition). Routledge, 2006. pp. 334–35
  4. Chardin served as a forerunner to the Realist movement in French painting. "Without realizing he was doing it, he rejected his own time and opened the door to modernity". Rosenberg, cited by Wilkin, Karen, The Splendid Chardin, New Criterion. Requires subscription. Retrieved 15 October 2008.

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