紅矮星可住帶

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去: 定向搵嘢

銀河系入邊有好多紅矮星。呢啲紅矮星周圍可能會有可居住帶。研究紅矮星可住帶有助人類揭示地外生命嘅存在方式。而家就紅矮星嘅特點嚟睇,有啲因素唔利於紅矮星周圍行星產生生命,譬如話紅矮星能量輻射量細,會令到可居住帶個範圍縮細;重有潮汐鎖定效應恆星變光現象,都會阻礙繞行紅矮星嘅行星產生生命。亦都有有利嘅因素,譬如話喺宇宙入邊紅矮星數量極多、紅矮星生命周期特別長呢啲。

褐矮星數目重多過紅矮星。之不過,就啲人而家知嘅嚟講,佢哋輻射出嚟嘅嗰一啲啲能量好快就會散盡,根本就冇可能支撐生命;而且一般嚟講佢哋都唔係恆星。

紅矮星嘅特性[編輯]

而家嘅天文發現話畀人知,紅矮星係最細、溫度最低嘅恆星。估佢哋嘅數目響冚嘭唥恆星數度嘅比率可以去到70個皮申到90個皮申。話佢哋「矮」,係比對主星序嘅冚嘭唥恆星,包括太陽。紅矮星係晚期 K 或 M 光譜類型。佢哋尺碼細,細到人類響地球上唔用儀器睇唔倒。個別睇得倒嘅紅矮星,好似最近太陽嘅比鄰星,重有最近嘅單獨紅矮星巴納星,都係視覺星等範圍之外。

研究[編輯]

潮汐鎖定[編輯]

一直以嚟天文學家都認為紅矮星冇能力支撐潛在生命需要嘅條件。佢哋咁細嘅尺碼(0.1到0.6個太陽咁大)話畀人知,佢哋內部嘅核反應好慢好慢;佢哋輻射嘅光好少好少(0.01個皮申到3個皮申嘅太陽輻射)。繞行紅矮星嘅行星要同佢繞行嘅紅矮星好近先至會有好似地球噉嘅溫度條件。好似Lacaille 8760呢隻紅矮星,呢個距離會係0.3個天文單位(細過太陽到水星嘅距離);而好似Proxima Centauri呢隻紅矮星,呢個距離就會細到0.032個天文單位[1](噉樣嘅情形,一年嘅長度會得返6.3日)。咁近嘅距離,紅矮星嘅重力會引發潮汐鎖定效應。日頭嗰一面會永遠對著紅矮星,而晚黑嗰一面會永遠見唔倒陽光。個行星就要有足夠厚嘅大氣層,用大氣對流嚟傳播日頭嗰一面嘅熱量去晚黑嗰一面,潛在生命先至能夠避免熱到地獄噉或凍到極點嘅噉嘅極端環境。不過咁厚嘅大氣層又可能會吸收晒或反射晒啲陽光,令到陽光冇辦法到達地面。係噉嘅話光合作用就好有問題。

恆星尺碼同溫度嘅比對。繞行紅矮星嘅行星要同佢繞行嘅紅矮星好近先至會有好似地球噉嘅溫度條件。咁近嘅距離會令到佢哋畀潮汐力鎖定

研究結果回駁咗呢挺悲觀嘅睇法。響加州美國國家航天局阿美司研究中心嘅嘅鑼拔·哈啤理同馬內·左司嘅研究結果顯示,行星嘅大氣層(假設佢有二氧化碳水蒸氣呢啲溫室氣體)氣壓有100毫巴,或者地球大氣嘅10個皮申,就可以有效噉傳日頭嗰一面嘅熱量去晚黑嗰一面。[2] 噉樣嘅大氣完全喺光合作用要求嘅範圍之內,雖然佢哋嘅一啲模型顯示響晚黑嗰一面水重會雪成冰。格林威治公開學院嘅馬丁·希士亦都話,如果大海洋盆夠深,海水可以有效噉環流,穿越晚黑面冰蓋嘅底部,帶埋日頭面嘅熱量過去。地熱亦都會加熱深部嘅海水令佢哋保持液態。更深入嘅研究,包括光合作用嘅光輻射劑量研究,表明潮汐鎖定嘅紅矮星行星至少可以滿足高等植物生存。[3]

光合作用[編輯]

紅矮星嘅尺碼唔係唯一限制潛在生命響紅矮星行星上便生存嘅因素。響紅矮星行星永遠晚黑嘅嗰一面,光合作用冇可能發生,因為嗰度永遠都見唔倒陽光。響日頭個一面,「太陽」永遠唔喐,山影地區亦都永遠冇陽光照射。光合作用會好複雜,因為大部分紅矮星能量輻射都響紅外波段(喺地球光合作用依賴可見光)。紅矮星光子平均能量低,佢嘅行星上邊嘅光合作用需要4個光子先至分解到一個水分子。喺地球上兩個就足夠[4]。植物要適應好闊嘅光譜範圍嚟吸收獲取足夠嘅能量。噉樣好可能會令到紅矮星行星上邊嘅植物葉睇落去冚嘭唥係黑色嘅[4]

變光性[編輯]

蠍虎座EV星嘅猛烈日冕物質拋射。蠍虎座EV星係一個細過太陽好多嘅恆星。佢嘅日冕物質拋射猛烈過太陽好多。

紅矮星變光性強烈過啲大嘅恆星好多。佢哋嘅表面經常有黑子遮蓋。大嘅黑子一次出現會令到紅矮星嘅輻射減少到正常輻射嘅60個皮申,幾個月咁耐。喺地球,生物用冬眠或者同時潛入深海嘅方法嚟適應冬天幾個月時間嘅溫度降低,呢挺溫度降低同紅矮星黑子導致佢行星嘅溫度降低比較差好遠。重有更嚴重嘅事情發生。紅矮星黑子導致行星溫度大幅降低,海洋可能會結冰。黑子過去紅矮星恢復正常輻射水平以後,結咗冰嘅行星反照率變大,反射晒大部分光照,就好似地球冰期效應一樣,可能會令冰凍持續幾百萬年。

有啲時候紅矮星會出現猛烈嘅耀斑,輻射響幾分鐘之內剎時間增強到正常輻射嘅兩倍[5]。噉樣嘅變光可以破壞所有可以形成生物前體嘅有機分子,對生命形成有好大嘅破壞作用。耀斑爆發吹出嘅「太陽風」亦都會吹走一部分行星嘅大氣。為咗保護繞行紅矮星嘅行星上便嘅生命唔畀耀斑輻射同「太陽風」傷害,行星要有快速旋轉嘅磁場至得。但係畀紅矮星潮汐鎖定嘅行星自轉好慢,佢嘅內核冇可能形成「地質發動機」嚟到產生足夠強嘅磁場。

有啲科學家唔同意上便呢啲睇法。

  • 「響可住性方面冇人發現認有可精彩到畀人中斷嘅表演」,加州大學Berkeley分校嘅傑布·巴司理話。好多人擔心一樣嘢,就係M光譜嘅紅矮星經常出現耀斑。耀斑爆發會推出好多高速運動嘅高能粒子,吹走晒任何臨近行星嘅大氣層。個行星有磁場嘅話,就可以令到高能粒子偏離大氣層。個潮汐鎖定咗嘅行星繞紅矮星公轉一圈,佢自己就自轉一圈,噉就足夠產生磁場,只要佢內部重保持融化狀態。[1]

不過,響紅矮星生命周期入便,猛烈嘅耀斑爆發只會大概喺佢存在嘅前12億年裡便先至有。個行星形成喺足夠遠嘅地方避免潮汐鎖定,然之後喺紅矮星嘅耀斑猛烈爆發期過後進入紅矮星嘅可住帶,噉生命有機會產生[6]。生命可以潛喺水底嚟保護自己避免畀輻射傷害,直到紅矮星過咗佢早期嘅耀斑猛烈爆發期。安靜嘅紅矮星輻射嘅紫外線好少,生命登陸之後,唔使臭氧層保護[4]

第啲科學家唔同意紅矮星可以支撐生命嘅睇法,認為好似地球咁適合生命嘅行星極少。潮汐鎖定會導致行星磁場相對較弱。活動嘅紅矮星爆發嘅日冕物質拋射會猛烈向背「日」面吹曲行星磁場,拋射物質可能直接接觸到行星大氣層。噉樣嘅情況會令到行星大氣經常擾動,好有可能會令成個行星環境變到唔適宜居住[7]

數目多[編輯]

比對第啲恆星,呢一點係紅矮星成為潛在生命居所嘅主要有利因素:佢哋存在周期特別長。地球存在至少45億年之後,先至出現人類;出現合適嘅條件令到生命大爆發係最近5億年嘅事情[8]。而紅矮星嘅存在周期可以長到万億年,因為佢哋嘅核反應較大嘅恆星慢好多好多,噉樣生命就有長得多嘅時間嚟發展進化同生存。仲有,要響特定紅矮星嘅可居住帶搵到行星嘅概率好細,但係所有紅矮星嘅可居住帶加埋,就同響類似太陽嘅行星可居住帶搵到行星嘅概率相當[9]。第一個搵到嘅可能係岩石質「超地球」質量級嘅太陽系外行星位於佢繞行嘅恆星「溫暖」嘅可居住帶入便,而佢繞行嘅恆星,Gliese 581,就係一個紅矮星。

睇吓[編輯]

引用同註解[編輯]

  1. "Habitable zones of stars". NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Exobiology. University of Southern California, San Diego. 喺2007-05-11搵到. 
  2. Joshi, M. M.; Haberle, R. M.; Reynolds, R. T. (1997). "Simulations of the Atmospheres of Synchronously Rotating Terrestrial Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs: Conditions for Atmospheric Collapse and the Implications for Habitability". Icarus. 129 (2): 450–465. doi:10.1006/icar.1997.5793. 喺2007-08-11搵到.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (詳情); 未知參數|month=已忽略 (詳情)

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    Editor first name 6 editor6-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 6 editor6-linkeditor6linkeditorlink6

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 7 editor7-lasteditor7

    The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 7 editor7-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 7 editor7-linkeditor7linkeditorlink7

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 8 editor8-lasteditor8

    The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 8 editor8-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 8 editor8-linkeditor8linkeditorlink8

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 9 editor9-lasteditor9

    The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 9 editor9-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 9 editor9-linkeditor9linkeditorlink9

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Others others

    Used to record other contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Title title

    The title of the article; can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in quotes.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 必填
    Script title script-title

    For titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Translated title trans-titletrans_title

    An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    URL urlURL

    The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type "http://..." or maybe even the  protocol relative scheme "//..."

    預設
    範例
    https://www.nytimes.com/...
    自動值
    建議
    Dead URL dead-urldeadurl

    If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Format format

    Format of the work referred to by 'url' ('url' is required when using 'format'); examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Department department

    Department within the periodical

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Journal journal

    Name of the source journal; may be wikilinked; displays in italics; alias of 'work'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 必填
    Chapter chapter

    The chapter heading of the source

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Type type

    Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Series seriesversion

    Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal; alias of 'version'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Language language

    The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templates

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Edition edition

    When the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed with ' ed.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Location of publication location

    Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place; alias of 'place'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Publisher publisher

    Name of the publisher; displays after title

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Place of publication publication-place

    Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Publication date publication-date

    Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Volume volume

    For one publication published in several volumes

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    Issue issue

    Issue identifier when the source is part of a series that is published periodically

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Page page

    Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Pages pages

    Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    At at

    May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    No pp nopp

    Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    arXiv identifier arxiv

    An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ASIN asin

    Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ASIN TLD asin-tld

    ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Bibcode bibcode

    Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    biorXiv biorxiv

    biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    CiteSeerX citeseerx

    CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    DOI doi

    Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    DOI broken date doi-broken-date

    The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    ISBN isbn

    International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ISSN issn

    International Standard Serial Number (print); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    eISSN eissn

    International Standard Serial Number (online); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    jfm code jfm

    Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    JSTOR jstor

    JSTOR identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    LCCN lccn

    Library of Congress Control Number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    MR mr

    Mathematical Reviews identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    OCLC oclc

    Online Computer Library Center number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    OL ol

    Open Library identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    OSTI osti

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    PMC pmc

    PubMed Center article number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    PMID pmid

    PubMed Unique Identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    RFC rfc

    Request for Comments number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    SSRN ssrn

    Social Science Research Network

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Zbl zbl

    Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    id id

    A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    URL access level url-access

    Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Archive URL archive-urlarchiveurl

    The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Archive date archive-datearchivedate

    Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    URL access date access-dateaccessdate

    The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Registration registration

    If the reference requires registration, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Subscription subscription

    If the reference requires a subscription, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Lay URL lay-urllayurl

    URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Lay source lay-sourcelaysource

    Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Lay date lay-datelaydate

    Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Quote quote

    Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Postscript postscript

    The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined; to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

    預設
    .
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Ref ref

    An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Separator separator

    The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as   to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

    預設
    .
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Content deliverer (i.e. Database) via

    Provider of the article (not the publisher), usually an aggregator of journal articles or a repository

    預設
    範例
    JSTOR, Project MUSE, Elsevier Science Direct
    自動值
    字串 建議
    Bibcode access level bibcode-access

    If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    DOI access level doi-access

    If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    HDL access level hdl-access

    If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Jstor access level jstor-access

    If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    OpenLibrary access level ol-access

    If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    HDL access level osti-access

    If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
  3. Heath, Martin J.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Joshi, Manoj M.; Haberle, Robert M. (1999). "Habitability of Planets Around Red Dwarf Stars" (PDF). Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere. 29 (4): 405–424. doi:10.1023/A:1006596718708. 喺2007-08-11搵到.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (詳情)

    TemplateData[編輯]

    This template formats a citation to an article in a magazine or journal, using the provided source information (e.g. journal name, author, title, issue, URL) and various formatting options.

    模版參數

    呢個模有特定格式。

    參數 描述 狀態
    Last name lastauthorauthor1authorslast1

    The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    First name firstfirst1

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    Author link author-linkauthorlink

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 2 last2author2

    The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 2 first2

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 2 author-link2author2-linkauthorlink2

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 3 last3author3

    The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 3 first3

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 3 author-link3author3-linkauthorlink3

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 4 last4author4

    The surname of the forth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink4'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 4 first4

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the forth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 4 author-link4author4-linkauthorlink4

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the forth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 5 last5author5

    The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink5'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 5 first5

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 5 author-link5author5-linkauthorlink5

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 6 last6author6

    The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink6'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 6 first6

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 6 author-link6author6-linkauthorlink6

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 7 last7author7

    The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 7 first7

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 7 author-link7author7-linkauthorlink7

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 8 last8author8

    The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink8'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 8 first8

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 8 author-link8author8-linkauthorlink8

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 9 last9author9

    The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 9 first9

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 9 author-link9author9-linkauthorlink9

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Display authors displayauthorsdisplay-authors

    number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used;

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    Author mask author-mask

    Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Last author ampersand last-author-amplastauthoramp

    When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    是非值 可選
    Author separator author-separator

    Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space; a space must be encoded as  

    預設
    ;
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author name separator author-name-separator

    Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as  

    預設
    ,
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Vancouver style authors vauthors

    comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    唔知 可選
    Source date date

    Date of the source; do not wikilink. As listed in the publication

    預設
    範例
    Summer 2017
    自動值
    日子 建議
    Year of publication year

    Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    Original year orig-yearorigyear

    Original year of publication; provide specifics

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    Editor last name editor-lasteditor1-last

    The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-last', 'editor'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name editor-firsteditor1-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-first'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link editor-link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-link'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 2 editor2-lasteditor2

    The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 2 editor2-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 2 editor2-linkeditor2linkeditorlink2

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 3 editor3-lasteditor3

    The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 3 editor3-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 3 editor3-linkeditor3linkeditorlink3

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 4 editor4-lasteditor4

    The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 4 editor4-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 4 editor4-linkeditor4linkeditorlink4

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 5 editor5-lasteditor5

    The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 5 editor5-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 5 editor5-linkeditor5linkeditorlink5

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 6 editor6-lasteditor6

    The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 6 editor6-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 6 editor6-linkeditor6linkeditorlink6

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 7 editor7-lasteditor7

    The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 7 editor7-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 7 editor7-linkeditor7linkeditorlink7

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 8 editor8-lasteditor8

    The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 8 editor8-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 8 editor8-linkeditor8linkeditorlink8

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 9 editor9-lasteditor9

    The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 9 editor9-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 9 editor9-linkeditor9linkeditorlink9

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Others others

    Used to record other contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Title title

    The title of the article; can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in quotes.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 必填
    Script title script-title

    For titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Translated title trans-titletrans_title

    An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    URL urlURL

    The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type "http://..." or maybe even the  protocol relative scheme "//..."

    預設
    範例
    https://www.nytimes.com/...
    自動值
    建議
    Dead URL dead-urldeadurl

    If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Format format

    Format of the work referred to by 'url' ('url' is required when using 'format'); examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Department department

    Department within the periodical

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Journal journal

    Name of the source journal; may be wikilinked; displays in italics; alias of 'work'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 必填
    Chapter chapter

    The chapter heading of the source

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Type type

    Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Series seriesversion

    Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal; alias of 'version'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Language language

    The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templates

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Edition edition

    When the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed with ' ed.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Location of publication location

    Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place; alias of 'place'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Publisher publisher

    Name of the publisher; displays after title

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Place of publication publication-place

    Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Publication date publication-date

    Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Volume volume

    For one publication published in several volumes

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    Issue issue

    Issue identifier when the source is part of a series that is published periodically

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Page page

    Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Pages pages

    Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    At at

    May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    No pp nopp

    Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    arXiv identifier arxiv

    An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ASIN asin

    Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ASIN TLD asin-tld

    ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Bibcode bibcode

    Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    biorXiv biorxiv

    biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    CiteSeerX citeseerx

    CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    DOI doi

    Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    DOI broken date doi-broken-date

    The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    ISBN isbn

    International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ISSN issn

    International Standard Serial Number (print); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    eISSN eissn

    International Standard Serial Number (online); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    jfm code jfm

    Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    JSTOR jstor

    JSTOR identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    LCCN lccn

    Library of Congress Control Number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    MR mr

    Mathematical Reviews identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    OCLC oclc

    Online Computer Library Center number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    OL ol

    Open Library identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    OSTI osti

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    PMC pmc

    PubMed Center article number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    PMID pmid

    PubMed Unique Identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    RFC rfc

    Request for Comments number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    SSRN ssrn

    Social Science Research Network

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Zbl zbl

    Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    id id

    A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    URL access level url-access

    Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Archive URL archive-urlarchiveurl

    The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Archive date archive-datearchivedate

    Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    URL access date access-dateaccessdate

    The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Registration registration

    If the reference requires registration, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Subscription subscription

    If the reference requires a subscription, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Lay URL lay-urllayurl

    URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Lay source lay-sourcelaysource

    Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Lay date lay-datelaydate

    Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Quote quote

    Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Postscript postscript

    The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined; to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

    預設
    .
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Ref ref

    An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Separator separator

    The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as   to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

    預設
    .
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Content deliverer (i.e. Database) via

    Provider of the article (not the publisher), usually an aggregator of journal articles or a repository

    預設
    範例
    JSTOR, Project MUSE, Elsevier Science Direct
    自動值
    字串 建議
    Bibcode access level bibcode-access

    If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    DOI access level doi-access

    If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    HDL access level hdl-access

    If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Jstor access level jstor-access

    If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    OpenLibrary access level ol-access

    If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    HDL access level osti-access

    If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Nancy Y. Kiang (April, 2008). "The color of plants on other worlds". Scientific American. 喺2008-06-27搵到.  檢查日期值喺: |date= (詳情)

    TemplateData[編輯]

    This template formats a citation to an article in a magazine or journal, using the provided source information (e.g. journal name, author, title, issue, URL) and various formatting options.

    模版參數

    呢個模有特定格式。

    參數 描述 狀態
    Last name lastauthorauthor1authorslast1

    The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    First name firstfirst1

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    Author link author-linkauthorlink

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 2 last2author2

    The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 2 first2

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 2 author-link2author2-linkauthorlink2

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 3 last3author3

    The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 3 first3

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 3 author-link3author3-linkauthorlink3

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 4 last4author4

    The surname of the forth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink4'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 4 first4

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the forth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 4 author-link4author4-linkauthorlink4

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the forth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 5 last5author5

    The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink5'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 5 first5

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 5 author-link5author5-linkauthorlink5

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 6 last6author6

    The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink6'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 6 first6

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 6 author-link6author6-linkauthorlink6

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 7 last7author7

    The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 7 first7

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 7 author-link7author7-linkauthorlink7

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 8 last8author8

    The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink8'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 8 first8

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 8 author-link8author8-linkauthorlink8

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 9 last9author9

    The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 9 first9

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 9 author-link9author9-linkauthorlink9

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Display authors displayauthorsdisplay-authors

    number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used;

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    Author mask author-mask

    Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Last author ampersand last-author-amplastauthoramp

    When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    是非值 可選
    Author separator author-separator

    Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space; a space must be encoded as  

    預設
    ;
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author name separator author-name-separator

    Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as  

    預設
    ,
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Vancouver style authors vauthors

    comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    唔知 可選
    Source date date

    Date of the source; do not wikilink. As listed in the publication

    預設
    範例
    Summer 2017
    自動值
    日子 建議
    Year of publication year

    Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    Original year orig-yearorigyear

    Original year of publication; provide specifics

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    Editor last name editor-lasteditor1-last

    The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-last', 'editor'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name editor-firsteditor1-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-first'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link editor-link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-link'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 2 editor2-lasteditor2

    The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 2 editor2-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 2 editor2-linkeditor2linkeditorlink2

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 3 editor3-lasteditor3

    The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 3 editor3-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 3 editor3-linkeditor3linkeditorlink3

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 4 editor4-lasteditor4

    The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 4 editor4-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 4 editor4-linkeditor4linkeditorlink4

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 5 editor5-lasteditor5

    The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 5 editor5-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 5 editor5-linkeditor5linkeditorlink5

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 6 editor6-lasteditor6

    The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 6 editor6-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 6 editor6-linkeditor6linkeditorlink6

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 7 editor7-lasteditor7

    The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 7 editor7-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 7 editor7-linkeditor7linkeditorlink7

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 8 editor8-lasteditor8

    The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 8 editor8-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 8 editor8-linkeditor8linkeditorlink8

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 9 editor9-lasteditor9

    The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 9 editor9-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 9 editor9-linkeditor9linkeditorlink9

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Others others

    Used to record other contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Title title

    The title of the article; can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in quotes.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 必填
    Script title script-title

    For titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Translated title trans-titletrans_title

    An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    URL urlURL

    The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type "http://..." or maybe even the  protocol relative scheme "//..."

    預設
    範例
    https://www.nytimes.com/...
    自動值
    建議
    Dead URL dead-urldeadurl

    If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Format format

    Format of the work referred to by 'url' ('url' is required when using 'format'); examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Department department

    Department within the periodical

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Journal journal

    Name of the source journal; may be wikilinked; displays in italics; alias of 'work'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 必填
    Chapter chapter

    The chapter heading of the source

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Type type

    Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Series seriesversion

    Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal; alias of 'version'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Language language

    The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templates

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Edition edition

    When the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed with ' ed.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Location of publication location

    Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place; alias of 'place'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Publisher publisher

    Name of the publisher; displays after title

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Place of publication publication-place

    Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Publication date publication-date

    Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Volume volume

    For one publication published in several volumes

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    Issue issue

    Issue identifier when the source is part of a series that is published periodically

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Page page

    Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Pages pages

    Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    At at

    May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    No pp nopp

    Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    arXiv identifier arxiv

    An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ASIN asin

    Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ASIN TLD asin-tld

    ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Bibcode bibcode

    Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    biorXiv biorxiv

    biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    CiteSeerX citeseerx

    CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    DOI doi

    Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    DOI broken date doi-broken-date

    The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    ISBN isbn

    International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ISSN issn

    International Standard Serial Number (print); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    eISSN eissn

    International Standard Serial Number (online); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    jfm code jfm

    Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    JSTOR jstor

    JSTOR identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    LCCN lccn

    Library of Congress Control Number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    MR mr

    Mathematical Reviews identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    OCLC oclc

    Online Computer Library Center number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    OL ol

    Open Library identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    OSTI osti

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    PMC pmc

    PubMed Center article number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    PMID pmid

    PubMed Unique Identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    RFC rfc

    Request for Comments number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    SSRN ssrn

    Social Science Research Network

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Zbl zbl

    Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    id id

    A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    URL access level url-access

    Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Archive URL archive-urlarchiveurl

    The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Archive date archive-datearchivedate

    Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    URL access date access-dateaccessdate

    The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Registration registration

    If the reference requires registration, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Subscription subscription

    If the reference requires a subscription, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Lay URL lay-urllayurl

    URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Lay source lay-sourcelaysource

    Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Lay date lay-datelaydate

    Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Quote quote

    Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Postscript postscript

    The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined; to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

    預設
    .
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Ref ref

    An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Separator separator

    The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as   to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

    預設
    .
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Content deliverer (i.e. Database) via

    Provider of the article (not the publisher), usually an aggregator of journal articles or a repository

    預設
    範例
    JSTOR, Project MUSE, Elsevier Science Direct
    自動值
    字串 建議
    Bibcode access level bibcode-access

    If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    DOI access level doi-access

    If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    HDL access level hdl-access

    If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Jstor access level jstor-access

    If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    OpenLibrary access level ol-access

    If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    HDL access level osti-access

    If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
  5. Croswell, Ken (27 January 2001). "Red, willing and able" (Full reprint). New Scientist. 喺2007-08-05搵到. 
  6. Cain, Fraser; and Gay, Pamela (2007). "AstronomyCast episode 40: American Astronomical Society Meeting, May 2007". Universe Today. 喺2007-06-17搵到. 
  7. Khodachenko, Maxim L.; et al (2007). "Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Activity of Low Mass M Stars as An Important Factor for The Habitability of Terrestrial Exoplanets. I. CME Impact on Expected Magnetospheres of Earth-Like Exoplanets in Close-In Habitable Zones". Astrobiology. 7 (1): 167–184. doi:10.1089/ast.2006.0127.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (詳情)

    TemplateData[編輯]

    This template formats a citation to an article in a magazine or journal, using the provided source information (e.g. journal name, author, title, issue, URL) and various formatting options.

    模版參數

    呢個模有特定格式。

    參數 描述 狀態
    Last name lastauthorauthor1authorslast1

    The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    First name firstfirst1

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    Author link author-linkauthorlink

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 2 last2author2

    The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 2 first2

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 2 author-link2author2-linkauthorlink2

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 3 last3author3

    The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 3 first3

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 3 author-link3author3-linkauthorlink3

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 4 last4author4

    The surname of the forth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink4'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 4 first4

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the forth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 4 author-link4author4-linkauthorlink4

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the forth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 5 last5author5

    The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink5'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 5 first5

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 5 author-link5author5-linkauthorlink5

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 6 last6author6

    The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink6'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 6 first6

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 6 author-link6author6-linkauthorlink6

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 7 last7author7

    The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 7 first7

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 7 author-link7author7-linkauthorlink7

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 8 last8author8

    The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink8'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 8 first8

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 8 author-link8author8-linkauthorlink8

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Last name 9 last9author9

    The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    First name 9 first9

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author link 9 author-link9author9-linkauthorlink9

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Display authors displayauthorsdisplay-authors

    number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used;

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    Author mask author-mask

    Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Last author ampersand last-author-amplastauthoramp

    When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    是非值 可選
    Author separator author-separator

    Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space; a space must be encoded as  

    預設
    ;
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Author name separator author-name-separator

    Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as  

    預設
    ,
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Vancouver style authors vauthors

    comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    唔知 可選
    Source date date

    Date of the source; do not wikilink. As listed in the publication

    預設
    範例
    Summer 2017
    自動值
    日子 建議
    Year of publication year

    Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    Original year orig-yearorigyear

    Original year of publication; provide specifics

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    Editor last name editor-lasteditor1-last

    The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-last', 'editor'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name editor-firsteditor1-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-first'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link editor-link

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-link'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 2 editor2-lasteditor2

    The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 2 editor2-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 2 editor2-linkeditor2linkeditorlink2

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 3 editor3-lasteditor3

    The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 3 editor3-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 3 editor3-linkeditor3linkeditorlink3

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 4 editor4-lasteditor4

    The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 4 editor4-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 4 editor4-linkeditor4linkeditorlink4

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 5 editor5-lasteditor5

    The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 5 editor5-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 5 editor5-linkeditor5linkeditorlink5

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 6 editor6-lasteditor6

    The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 6 editor6-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 6 editor6-linkeditor6linkeditorlink6

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 7 editor7-lasteditor7

    The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 7 editor7-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 7 editor7-linkeditor7linkeditorlink7

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 8 editor8-lasteditor8

    The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor first name 8 editor8-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor link 8 editor8-linkeditor8linkeditorlink8

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Editor last name 9 editor9-lasteditor9

    The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
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    Editor first name 9 editor9-first

    Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

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    範例
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    可選
    Editor link 9 editor9-linkeditor9linkeditorlink9

    Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor.

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    範例
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    Others others

    Used to record other contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'

    預設
    範例
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    內容 可選
    Title title

    The title of the article; can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in quotes.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 必填
    Script title script-title

    For titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...

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    Translated title trans-titletrans_title

    An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    URL urlURL

    The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type "http://..." or maybe even the  protocol relative scheme "//..."

    預設
    範例
    https://www.nytimes.com/...
    自動值
    建議
    Dead URL dead-urldeadurl

    If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

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    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Format format

    Format of the work referred to by 'url' ('url' is required when using 'format'); examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

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    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Department department

    Department within the periodical

    預設
    範例
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    字串 可選
    Journal journal

    Name of the source journal; may be wikilinked; displays in italics; alias of 'work'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 必填
    Chapter chapter

    The chapter heading of the source

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Type type

    Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Series seriesversion

    Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal; alias of 'version'

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    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Language language

    The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templates

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    自動值
    內容 可選
    Edition edition

    When the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed with ' ed.'

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    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Location of publication location

    Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place; alias of 'place'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Publisher publisher

    Name of the publisher; displays after title

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    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Place of publication publication-place

    Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

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    範例
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    內容 可選
    Publication date publication-date

    Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink

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    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Volume volume

    For one publication published in several volumes

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    Issue issue

    Issue identifier when the source is part of a series that is published periodically

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Page page

    Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Pages pages

    Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    建議
    At at

    May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

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    範例
    自動值
    可選
    No pp nopp

    Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    arXiv identifier arxiv

    An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ASIN asin

    Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ASIN TLD asin-tld

    ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Bibcode bibcode

    Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    biorXiv biorxiv

    biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    CiteSeerX citeseerx

    CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    DOI doi

    Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    DOI broken date doi-broken-date

    The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    ISBN isbn

    International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ISSN issn

    International Standard Serial Number (print); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    eISSN eissn

    International Standard Serial Number (online); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    jfm code jfm

    Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    JSTOR jstor

    JSTOR identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    LCCN lccn

    Library of Congress Control Number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    MR mr

    Mathematical Reviews identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    OCLC oclc

    Online Computer Library Center number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    OL ol

    Open Library identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    OSTI osti

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    PMC pmc

    PubMed Center article number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    PMID pmid

    PubMed Unique Identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    RFC rfc

    Request for Comments number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    SSRN ssrn

    Social Science Research Network

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Zbl zbl

    Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    id id

    A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    URL access level url-access

    Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Archive URL archive-urlarchiveurl

    The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Archive date archive-datearchivedate

    Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    URL access date access-dateaccessdate

    The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Registration registration

    If the reference requires registration, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Subscription subscription

    If the reference requires a subscription, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Lay URL lay-urllayurl

    URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Lay source lay-sourcelaysource

    Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Lay date lay-datelaydate

    Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Quote quote

    Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Postscript postscript

    The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined; to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

    預設
    .
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Ref ref

    An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Separator separator

    The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as   to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

    預設
    .
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Content deliverer (i.e. Database) via

    Provider of the article (not the publisher), usually an aggregator of journal articles or a repository

    預設
    範例
    JSTOR, Project MUSE, Elsevier Science Direct
    自動值
    字串 建議
    Bibcode access level bibcode-access

    If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    DOI access level doi-access

    If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    HDL access level hdl-access

    If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Jstor access level jstor-access

    If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    OpenLibrary access level ol-access

    If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    HDL access level osti-access

    If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
  8. "'The end of the world' has already begun, UW scientists say" (Press release). University of Washington. January 13, 2003. 喺2007-06-05搵到. 
  9. "M Dwarfs: The Search for Life is On, Interview with Todd Henry". Astrobiology Magazine. August 29, 2005. 喺2007-08-05搵到. .

http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0612726