資本主義

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢
香港中華人民共和國一個自治區,佢嘅資本主義經濟模式具有非常高嘅「經濟自由率」(主要係英國統治該地區嘅遺產),噉令佢同中國經濟嘅其他部分(特點係更加共產主義導向嘅經濟同埋相當高嘅「國家干預率」)截然不同。令香港成為地球上最繁榮嘅經濟體之一,人均收入同人類發展指數都非常高。
1911年嘅反資本主義海報。

資本主義係一種喺生產資料私有制基礎上,並且攞呢啲生產資料嚟賺錢經濟制度[1][2][3][4]資本主義嘅核心特點包括資本累積市場競爭價格體系私有產權產權界定、自願交換同僱傭勞動。資本主義市場經濟裏便嘅決策同投資,係由資本同金融市場當中嘅擁有財富、財產嘅人,亦或啲擁有控制資本或生產能力嘅能力嘅人所掌握嘅;而商品同服務嘅價錢同分配,主要就交畀商品同服務市場嘅競爭嚟決定。[5]

經濟學家史學家、政治經濟學家同社會學家睇資本主義會有唔一樣嘅睇法,並且佢哋認識到現實中資本主義有好多唔同嘅形式,譬如自由放任自由市場資本主義國家資本主義福利資本主義。唔同類型嘅資本主義,佢哋嘅自由市場公有制[6]、對自由競爭嘅阻礙同埋國家嘅社會政策都唔一樣。市場競爭嘅程度、干預同監管嘅作用,同埋國有制嘅範圍,根據資本主義嘅形式唔同,可能都唔一樣。[7]市場有幾自由、點樣界定私有財產嘅規則,都係政治同政策嘅問題。家下大多數嘅資本主義經濟體都係混合經濟,佢哋有自由市場嘅要素,亦都有國家干預,有啲甚至經濟計劃都有埋。[8]

市場經濟喺好多唔同形式嘅政府同好多不同的時代、地點同文化中都出現過。家下嘅資本主義社會初頭係喺一個導致工業革命嘅過程當中,喺西歐發展起身嘅。之後,資本主義制度喺西方世界佔咗主導地位並繼續擴張,但係佢哋政府直接干預嘅程度有所唔同。經濟增長係資本主義經濟當中好有特點嘅一個趨勢。[9]

參考[編輯]

  1. Zimbalist, Sherman and Brown, Andrew, Howard J. and Stuart (October 1988). Comparing Economic Systems: A Political-Economic Approach. Harcourt College Pub. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-15-512403-5. Pure capitalism is defined as a system wherein all of the means of production (physical capital) are privately owned and run by the capitalist class for a profit, while most other people are workers who work for a salary or wage (and who do not own the capital or the product).
  2. Rosser, Mariana V.; Rosser, J Barkley (23 July 2003). Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy. MIT Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-262-18234-8. In capitalist economies, land and produced means of production (the capital stock) are owned by private individuals or groups of private individuals organized as firms.
  3. Chris Jenks. Core Sociological Dichotomies. "Capitalism, as a mode of production, is an economic system of manufacture and exchange which is geared toward the production and sale of commodities within a market for profit, where the manufacture of commodities consists of the use of the formally free labor of workers in exchange for a wage to create commodities in which the manufacturer extracts surplus value from the labor of the workers in terms of the difference between the wages paid to the worker and the value of the commodity produced by him/her to generate that profit." London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Delhi. Sage. p. 383.
  4. Gilpin, Robert (5 June 2018). The Challenge of Global Capitalism : The World Economy in the 21st Century. ISBN 978-0-691-18647-4. OCLC 1076397003.
  5. Gregory, Paul; Stuart, Robert (2013). The Global Economy and its Economic Systems. South-Western College Pub. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-285-05535-0. Capitalism is characterized by private ownership of the factors of production. Decision making is decentralized and rests with the owners of the factors of production. Their decision making is coordinated by the market, which provides the necessary information. Material incentives are used to motivate participants.
  6. Gregory and Stuart, Paul and Robert (28 February 2013). The Global Economy and its Economic Systems. South-Western College Pub. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-285-05535-0. Real-world capitalist systems are mixed, some having higher shares of public ownership than others. The mix changes when privatization or nationalization occurs. Privatization is when property that had been state-owned is transferred to private owners. Nationalization occurs when privately owned property becomes publicly owned.
  7. Macmillan Dictionary of Modern Economics, 3rd Ed., 1986, p. 54.
  8. Stilwell, Frank. "Political Economy: the Contest of Economic Ideas". First Edition. Oxford University Press. Melbourne, Australia. 2002.
  9. Michael Joff (2011). "The root cause of economic growth under capitalism". Cambridge Journal of Economics. 35 (5): 873–896. doi:10.1093/cje/beq054. The tendency for capitalist economies to grow is one of their most characteristic properties.

睇埋[編輯]