長刀之夜

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
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長刀之夜德文個快撈 Nacht der langen Messer ), 或叫羅姆清洗,或者叫蜂鳥行動 (German: Unternehmen Kolibri),一次喺1934年6月30日至7月2日發現嘅政治清洗行動,由總理 希特拉戈林希姆萊,為集權,以及回應德國軍方對衝鋒隊以及羅姆角色疑慮為目的作出嘅法外處決行動,納粹黨宣傳機器故意宣傳為一場避免政變嘅行動。

希特拉同衝鋒隊[編輯]

關於衝鋒隊嘅暴力事件[編輯]

納粹衝鋒隊納粹黨擁有一定的自主性。衝鋒隊係由一戰後嘅自由軍團演變而嚟,他們大多數嘅成員都認為德國是被「十一月的罪犯」出賣嘅,他們同樣反對果陣新成立威瑪政府,亦反對共產主義共產黨喺德國逐漸發展果陣,衝鋒隊就同共產黨發生激烈衝突[1]。呢種激烈衝突亦對戰後有實驗性質民主政體威瑪政府帶嚟相當不穩定[2]。以1932年6月為例,超過400次嘅街頭衝突,造成82人死亡[3]。這種社會上嘅不穩定係希特拉崛起關鍵因素,好多德國人確信一旦希特拉被任命為總理,呢種地方械鬥就會停上。他成為總理後,除咗納粹黨外嘅政黨一律被鎮壓,包含共產黨都被瓦解。但有關衝鋒隊嘅暴力事件仍層出不窮,有時毆打路人或阻住他們的警察[4]。喺1933年中期左右,衝鋒隊被普通人認為係傲慢同無禮,有外交官抱怨過外國大使被衝鋒隊無理對待[5]。呢類行為已令中產階級同其他保守團體,例如德軍有意見。

參考書目[編輯]

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  1. ^Reiche (2002), pp. 120–121
  2. Toland (1976), p. 266.
  3. Shirer (1960), p. 165.
  4. Evans (2005), p. 23.
  5. Kershaw, Hitler, (1999), p. 501