高德溫法則

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以高德溫法則同邁克高德溫做底本嘅WikiWorld漫畫; 入邊嘅真人相都取自Wikipedia嘅自由檔案 "File:Hitler speech.jpg"

高德溫法則Godwin's Law),又叫做高德溫反納粹類比規則[1][2],係互聯網世界度1990年由美國律師作家邁克高德溫(Mike Godwin)先提出嘅一句格言[2][3]

當線上討論一路咁拖長,參與者將啲用家或提出嘅言行同納粹主義希特拉相提並論嘅比率係會趨向一(100%)[4]

呢個格言起源自互聯網度唔少用家一旦見到自己唔歡喜嘅人或物,就會拉埋同希特拉去相提並論。早年唔少嘅Usenet新聞組度都會有一個傳統:一個話題一旦子出現咗呢種論比就即時收檔,提出論比嘅用家亦係會被認為自動認輸。不過若果係專登用呢個手段去到停止討論嘅做法,亦有啲意見認為並唔啱而唔受一啲地方嘅認可。

高德溫法則最初係由Usenet平台度出現嘅,到咗現代,係可以指喺任何嘅在線平台度討論串度出現嘅同類情況[5][6]電郵BBS聊天室等。

到2012年嘅時候,牛津英文詞典(第三版)正式收錄咗高德溫法則成為一個詞彙[7]

總覽、推論同用法[編輯]

呢個法則係有唔少嘅推論形式,其中一啲係相對有紋路過(包括係獲高德溫本人嘅認可)[3]其他嘅方法。[1]譬如係似上邊提過嘅一個流傳喺在線新聞組同其他在線討論區嘅傳統,當出現咗一個希特拉嘅論比留言,成個討論就會即時終止同時提出呢個論點嘅用家就會視為喺討論度自動失敗[8] 。呢個原則就係通俗代表咗呢個法則本身[9]

當參與辯論人提出可能有啲誇張嘅對比論述係合乎返話題本身嘅辯論進路,提出呢個法則本身嘅時候,就可能會係不當使用或濫用而具分散同擾亂討論、甚至有審查言論嘅作用[10]

高德溫本人都有批評過呢個法則可能有俾人濫用嘅情況,話單憑呢個係針對唔到話題度可能出現嘅謬論問題;不過利用呢個法則係會針對壓減返(話題)唔適當(論述)嘅比例同埋誇張嘅類比方式。「雖然有可能特登將(呢個法則)當成一個自然法則或數學法則,」高德溫本人寫到,「(呢個法則)一路嘅目的係在於修辭學教育學:我希望啲輕率咁將第啲人比喻作希特拉嘅人,會再落力啲思考返猶太人大屠殺。」[11]

高德溫喺2015年12月嘅時候,點評咗幾篇針對返嗰時係美國共和黨總統候選人特朗普、有將渠擺入同納粹法西斯主義一齊論比嘅文章,提到話:「若果你真係識諗嘅,又真係對歷史有認識嘅,即管去傾特朗普嘅時候就同希特拉比較,或者換第啲政客(同希特拉比)」[12] 2017年8月針對返相近時間喺維珍尼亞州夏洛特鎮嘅右翼大型集會,高德溫以一定尊重嘅態度喺FacebookTwitter都發佈咗類似嘅點評,認可同鼓勵返將有關右翼組織成員同納粹相論比[13][14][15][16]

2018年6月高德溫喺洛杉磯時報度發表咗一份點評,認為並唔需要更新或修改呢個法則嘅內容,同時係唔同意任何引用咗個法則嘅論說人就係辯論失敗咗,同時係談論咗呢個法則嘅應用「應該係少啲終結話題嘅功用,要再多返啲開啟(新)話題嘅功用。」[17]

參考[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Tim Skirvin (September 15, 1999). "How to post about Hitler and get away with it—the Godwin's law FAQ". Skirv's Wiki. 原著喺October 11, 1999歸檔.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Godwin, Mike (October 1994). "Meme, Counter-meme". Wired. 喺March 24, 2006搵到.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Godwin, Mike (January 12, 1995). "Godwin's law of Hitler Analogies (and Corollaries)". EFF.org. Electronic Frontier Foundation. pp. "Net Culture – Humor" archive section. 原著喺August 29, 2012歸檔. 喺June 19, 2012搵到.
  4. Mike Godwin (2004-10-01). "Meme, Counter-meme". Wired Magazine. 喺2006-03-24搵到.
  5. Goldacre, Ben (September 16, 2010). "Pope aligns atheists with Nazis. Bizarre. Transcript here". bengoldacre – secondary blog. 原著喺March 25, 2013歸檔.
  6. Stanley, Timothy (March 6, 2014). "Hillary, Putin's no Hitler". Opinion. CNN. 喺March 6, 2014搵到.
  7. "Godwin's law". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 喺February 27, 2013搵到.
  8. "Internet rules and laws: the top 10, from Godwin to Poe". The Daily Telegraph (London), October 23, 2009.
  9. Oliver, John (host) (13 August 2017). "North Korea". Last Week Tonight (英文). HBO. "There honestly aren't that many instances in modern American politics where you can honestly think: that guy really should have mentioned the Nazis, but this is emphatically one of them. It's like the reversed Godwin's law—if you fail to mention Nazism, you lose the argument.". 喺7 November 2017搵到.
  10. David Weigel, "Hands Off Hitler! It's time to repeal Godwin's Law" Reason magazine, July 14, 2005
  11. "I Seem To Be A Verb: 18 Years of Godwin's Law". Jewcy.com. April 30, 2008. 喺April 16, 2010搵到.
  12. Godwin, Mike (14 December 2015). "Sure, call Trump a Nazi. Just make sure you know what you're talking about". The Washington Post. 原著喺9 February 2017歸檔.
  13. Gilbert, Alexandre (17 August 2017). "Godwin's law & the Nazi Cosplay Hobbiysts". Times of Israel.
  14. Godwin, Mike (14 August 2017). "Mike Godwin on Facebook: "By all means, compare these shitheads to the Nazis. Again and again. I'm with you."". Facebook. 原著喺14 August 2017歸檔.
  15. Godwin, Mike (13 August 2017). "Mike Godwin on Twitter: "By all means, compare these shitheads to Nazis. Again and again. I'm with you."". Twitter. 原著喺14 August 2017歸檔.
  16. Mandelbaum, Ryan. "Godwin of Godwin's Law: 'By All Means, Compare These Shitheads to the Nazis'". Gizmodo. 喺14 August 2017搵到.
  17. Godwin, Mike (June 24, 2018). "Op-Ed: Do we need to update Godwin's Law about the probability of comparison to Nazis?". Los Angeles Times. 喺July 24, 2020搵到.

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