上古日語

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
萬葉集》嘅其中兩頁;雖然佢用咗漢字寫,但查實係用萬葉假名寫緊上古日語。

上古日語係已知最早期嘅日本話,現代日本話嘅語言祖先,存在喺大約公元 8 世紀。

上古日語並唔屬漢語,而係屬日本-琉球語系[註 1],同粵語等嘅漢語唔同源[1]。喺 5 世紀之前,現代日本話嘅遠古祖先獨立噉喺日本列島發展,本身已經有一定量嘅本土字詞,呢啲字詞同漢語入便嘅好唔同。

漢字[編輯]

睇埋:訓讀同埋萬葉假名

由大約 5 至 6 世紀起(唐朝就始於 7 世紀),日本開始勁喺度同古代唐人進行文化交流,大受漢語(尤其係唐朝嘅中古漢語)影響,亦都全面引入咗漢字;噉日本人就自然開始想用漢字嚟書寫日本話。不過,漢字好多時都淨係表達意思,尤其係啲象形字,於是就出現咗一種情況,日本人見到一隻漢字嗰時,可能會跟中古漢語嗰種讀法嚟讀,但又有可能會讀做同嗰隻漢字一樣意思嘅本土口語字詞,即係例如噉,想像

  • 有一個 7 世紀奈良時代嘅日本人,佢望住張紙上便寫咗呢隻漢字;
  • 佢可以跟中古漢語噉讀—即係 sui 呢個漢音嘅前身;
  • 但佢又可以將隻漢字讀做佢本土語言入便指嗰隻字詞—即係 mizu 呢個訓讀音嘅前身;

最後,就形成咗現代日本話對漢字「有分漢讀定訓讀」噉嘅情況[2][3]

睇埋[編輯]

註釋[編輯]

  1. 亦可以睇睇阿勒泰語言聯盟嘅概念。

[編輯]

  1. Vovin, A. (2017). Origins of the Japanese language. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics.
  2. Miyake, Marc Hideo (2003). Old Japanese: A Phonetic Reconstruction. New York, NY; London, England: RoutledgeCurzon,呢本書幾出名,講嘅係日本話嘅歷史。
  3. Þórdísarson, B. G. (2016). The history of loan words in Japanese and their effect on the Japanese language (Doctoral dissertation). "As explained in the introduction, written Japanese itself is borrowed and adapted from Chinese over a period of centuries. Kanji both kept their original Chinese pronunciation, adapted to the Japanese syllabary, called onyomi, as well as being assigned a native Japanese pronunciation when assigned to words already native to Japanese, called kunyomi."