樽裝水

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢
細支裝樽裝水
飲水機樽裝水嘅樽
飲水機

樽裝水英文Bottled water)係用裝住嘅食水,通常係膠樽或者玻璃樽,有細細支方便攜帶嘅,亦有飲水機專用大樽嘅。食水嘅來源可以係水喉水井水礦泉水蒸餾水等,星加坡甚至會用經常處理嘅污水,稱為「NEWater」意思即係「新生水」[1]

全球銷量[編輯]

近呢幾十年,樽裝水嘅銷量急劇上升。喺1990年至2005年呢短短15年間,樽裝水嘅消耗已經上升咗超過4倍[2]。去到2006年,銷量已經上升到600億美元,容量達1.15億立方米[3]。據估計,全球每年消耗約2000億樽樽裝水[4]

儲存[編輯]

樽裝水通常儲存為自然災難發生時嘅緊急儲備。災害管理專家建議為每人儲備3.8公升嘅水,呢個數包括咗飲用、煮食、洗手、洗碗同埋個人衛生所用嘅水[5]。由工廠封好咗嘅水只要冇開過或者損毀,可以擺幾耐都得[6],至於樽上所印嘅到期日指出嘅只係喺嗰個日期之前樽水仍然新鮮,而唔係話過咗期之後就唔乾淨或者唔安全

關於樽裝水嘅爭議[編輯]

對健康嘅影響[編輯]

美國國家環境保護局(Environmental Protection Agency,EPA)規定,飲用水最多只可以含有九十種污染物,而只有十五種就更好[7]

1950年代開始,水喉水通常加入咗氟化物嚟防止爛牙。因為樽裝水通過蒸餾或者反滲透嘅處理,相對天然地下水,樽裝水含有少啲氟離子,所以長期飲樽裝水,會易啲爛牙[8]

德國法蘭克褔大學研究指出,有好多用膠樽裝嘅樽裝水,都染咗雌激素化合物。雖然有啲用玻璃樽裝嘅水亦都有污染,但係研究者仍然認為污染物係嚟膠樽[9]。膠樽暴露喺太凍或者太熱嘅地方都可能會導致啲化合物溶喺樽裝水入面。

樽裝水同埋水喉水[編輯]

香港,一樽500毫升嘅樽裝水大概賣4至5港元,而同量嘅水喉水就只需0.00000208港元(按照每立方米嘅水費係4.16港元)[10]。通常大於九成嘅樽裝水嘅售價都唔係用喺樽水本身,而係用喺包裝、運輸、營銷、零售等等嘅雜費,同埋盈利[11]

另外,因為樽裝水冇經過用嚟泵水嘅金屬水管,所以相對於水喉水,樽裝水含有較少嘅等等金屬污染物[12]

一個比較五十七個樽裝水同水喉水樣本嘅研究發現,所有水喉水樣本嘅細菌含量係低於 3 CFUs/mL(菌落形成單位毫升),而樽裝水樣本嘅細菌含量就由 0.01 - 4900 CFU/mL 不等,當中雖然有十五個樣本有多達 6 - 4900 CFUs/mL,大部份嘅樣本都得少過 1 CFU/mL[13]。但係喺美國亞拉巴馬州,有一個測試廿五個唔同牌子樽裝水嘅研究就發現,大部份樣本嘅同埋嘅含量都超過美國國家環境保護局訂定嘅上限[14]

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. 【供水自主】新加坡再造水技術領先全球
  2. Li, Ling. Bottled Water Consumption Jumps, Worldwatch Institute. November 8, 2007.
  3. King, Mike. Bottled Water Global Industry Guide, PR-inside.com, July 7, 2008.
  4. "A Fountain On Every Corner", New York Times. Find A Fountain, May 23, 2008.
  5. Manjoo, Farhad (11 March 2011). "How To Survive an Earthquake".
  6. Posnick, Lauren M. and Henry Kim (2002). "February/March 2002 Ask the Regulators -- Bottled Water Regulation and the FDA". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  7. "Drinking Water Contaminants | Drinking Water Contaminants | US EPA". Epa.gov. 喺2010-10-15搵到.
  8. Smith, Michael. Bottled Water Cited as Contributing to Cavity Comeback, MedPage Today, September 19, 2005.
  9. Bottled water in plastic containers contaminated from plastic containers
  10. [1]
  11. [2], NRDC, undated.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Petraccia, L., Liberati, G., Masciullo S.G., Grassi, M. & Fraioli, A. "Water, mineral waters and health". Clinical Nutrition. 25 (3): 377–385. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2005.10.002. |access-date= requires |url= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: 作者名單 (link)
  13. Lalumandier, J.A.; Ayers, L.W. (2000). "Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled water vs tap water". Archives of Family Medicine. 9: 246–250. doi:10.1001/archfami.9.3.246. PMID 10728111. 喺1 November 2009搵到.
  14. Ikem, A., Odueyungbo, S., Egiebor, N.O., & Nyavor, K. (2001). "Chemical quality of bottled waters from three cities in eastern Alabama". The Science of the Total Environment. 285 (1–3): 165–175. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00915-9. |access-date= requires |url= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: 作者名單 (link)
  15. World Health Organization, "How to measure chlorine residual in water" WHO - Technical Notes for Emergencies, Technical Note No. 11, 4 Draft revised: 7.1.05 (pdf)
  16. Bottled Water. Penn Jillette, Teller. Bullshit!. Showtime. 2003-03-07. No. 7, season 1.
  17. Paulson, Tom. Thirst for bottled water may hurt environment, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, April 19, 2007.
  18. "Grand Canyon to ban bottled water sales". February 8, 2012.
  19. 19.0 19.1 "Smaller categories still saw growth as the U.S. liquid refreshment beverage market shrunk by 2.0% in 2008, Beverage Marketing Corporation reports", press release Beverage Marketing Corporation, 3/30/2009.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Foley, Meraiah (July 17, 2009). "BUNDANOON JOURNAL; Ban on Bottled Water, Apparently a First, Puts a Small Town on a Big Stage". The New York Times.
  21. Banning the bottle puts Bundy on the map
  22. Foley, Meraiah (July 16, 2009). "Small Australian Town Stands Up for the Tap". The New York Times.
  23. http://www.bundyontap.com.au
  24. Keen, Judy (October 17, 2007). "Bottled water leaves some cities with a bad taste". USA Today. 喺April 1, 2010搵到. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  25. European Directive 2009/54/EC, June 18, 2009.
  26. Directive 2001/83/EC, November 6, 2001.
  27. http://ddc.aub.edu.lb/projects/geology/geology-of-lebanon/
  28. http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/lebanon/index.stm
  29. http://www.earth-policy.org/plan_b_updates/2006/update51
  30. http://www.eagleworldnews.com/2010/03/23/lebanon-suffers-massive-water-shortages/
  31. "Changing Consumer Tastes Creates Explosive Growth For Domestic And International Bottled Water Brands - Revenue In 2007 Expected To Reach $5.974 Billion With Growth Set To Climb Higher Through 2012", press release, IBISWorld, May 21, 2008.
  32. "Learn More: Bottled Water". Columbia Water Center. 喺2009-09-15搵到.

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