腎上腺素

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Epinephrine.svg
Epinephrine ball-and-stick model.png
腎上腺素
系統(IUPAC)名稱
(R)-4-(1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
識別號
CAS number 51-43-4
ATC code A01AD01 B02BC09 C01CA24 R01AA14 R03AA01 S01EA01
PubChem 5816
DrugBank DB00668
化學資料
公式 C9H13NO3 
分子質量 183.204 g/mol
SMILES search in eMolecules, PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Metabolism 腎上腺素能突觸MAOCOMT
Half life 2分鐘
Excretion 尿液
醫療嘅考慮
Licence data

US

Pregnancy cat.

C(US)

Legal status

Prescription Only (S4)(AU) POM(UK) ?(US)

Routes 靜脈注射肌肉注射氣管內管英文endotracheal tube心內注射英文Intracardiac injection鼻噴劑眼藥水

腎上腺素粵拼san6 soeng6 sin3 sou3英文Adrenaline、Epinephrine),係種賀爾蒙[1][2]。腎上腺素通常由腎上腺延髓入面嘅神經細胞一齊整出嚟,喺入面佢係負責調節內臟功能(例如唞氣)嘅神經傳遞素[1][3]。佢通過增加肌肉嘅血流量,心臟嘅輸出,瞳孔擴張反應同血糖水平[4][5],喺戰鬥定逃走反應度發揮緊要嘅作用。佢通過同α、β受體結合嚟做到呢一點[5]。腎上腺素喺好多動物同一些單細胞生物度發現到[6][7]波蘭生理學家拿破崙西布斯基(Napoleon Cybulski)喺1895年第一次分離出腎上腺素[8]

醫療用途[編輯]

作為一種,佢可以用嚟醫好多,包括過敏心臟驟停同淺表出血[9]。吸入嘅腎上腺素可用喺改善咽喉氣管支氣管炎(Croup)嘅徴狀[10]。當第啲醫法冇效嗰陣,腎上腺素都可以用嚟醫哮喘。佢係通過靜脈注射,肌肉注射,吸入或者直接喺皮膚底下打用針筒落人體入面。用腎上腺素常見嘅副作用包括打冷顫,焦慮同出汗,甚至可能會出現心跳加快同高血壓。有時重可能會導致心律異常。但係喺有娠紀同餵人奶嗰陣用腎上腺素就未知安唔安全。

而家亦有用腎上腺素輸注代替臨床上有心血管病早產蘇蝦嘅肌力藥嘅案例。雖然有足夠嘅數據強烈建議將腎上腺素輸注作為一種可行嘅醫治方法,但係重要做更多嘅試驗先至可以確定呢啲輸注真係可以成功噉降低心血管病早產兒嘅發病率同死亡率

[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Lieberman, Michael; Marks, Allan; Peet, Alisa (2013). Marks' Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach (第4th版). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 175. ISBN 9781608315727. Unknown parameter |name-list-style= ignored (help)
  2. "(-)-adrenaline". 21 August 2015.
  3. Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 6: Widely Projecting Systems: Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and Orexin". 出自 Sydor A, Brown RY (編). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (第2nd版). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 157. ISBN 9780071481274. Epinephrine occurs in only a small number of central neurons, all located in the medulla. Epinephrine is involved in visceral functions, such as the control of respiration. It is also produced by the adrenal medulla.
  4. Bell, David R. (2009). Medical physiology : principles for clinical medicine (第3rd版). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 312. ISBN 9780781768528. Unknown parameter |name-list-style= ignored (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Khurana (2008). Essentials of Medical Physiology. Elsevier India. p. 460. ISBN 9788131215661.
  6. Buckley, Eleanor (2013). Venomous Animals and Their Venoms: Venomous Vertebrates. Elsevier. p. 478. ISBN 9781483262888. Unknown parameter |name-list-style= ignored (help)
  7. Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment (第5th版). Cambridge University Press. 1997. p. 510. ISBN 9781107268500.
  8. Szablewski, Leszek (2011). Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance (英文). Bentham Science Publishers. p. 68. ISBN 9781608051892.
  9. "Epinephrine". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 喺15 August 2015搵到.
  10. Everard ML (February 2009). "Acute bronchiolitis and croup". Pediatric Clinics of North America. 56 (1): 119–33, x–xi. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2008.10.007. PMID 19135584.