靴曼梅爾維爾

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靴曼梅爾維爾

 靴曼 梅爾維爾粵拼hoe1 maan6 mui4 ji5 wai4 ji5英文Herman Melville1819年8月1號1891年9月28號)美國小說家,短篇小說作家同美國文藝復興時期詩人。 佢最有名嘅作品包括 Typee(1846年),裏頭浪漫噉描寫波利尼西亞嘅生活經驗,以及佢嘅捕小說《無比敵》(1851年)。 佢作品喺佢死之前三十年幾乎冇人記得。 佢嘅水手經歷、對文學同哲學探索、以及轉變之中嘅美國社會、之中嘅矛盾,一一影響佢嘅作品。佢嘅風格,複雜,亦好巴洛克:詞彙豐富而原創,強勁嘅節奏感注入長句,意像神秘或諷刺,而豐富引文延伸到聖經神話哲學文學以至視覺藝術。

身世[編輯]

梅爾維爾1819年喺美國紐約出世[1] ,屋企第三個細路。老豆老母分別出自蘇格蘭荷蘭嘅名門。一家信奉長老會。佢先讀紐約公校(哥倫比亞大學預科學校)。之後,1830年全家搬去奧爾巴尼

梅爾維爾由1830年十月至1831年十月讀奧爾巴尼學院,佢喺1836年十月到1837年三月之間學咗唔少文學經典[2]。因為家道中落,十五歲離校,做過農夫、職員、小學先生等職務。1837年搭帆船出航,去咗英國利物浦。1841年成為捕鯨水手,由美國麻省費爾黑文出發。捕鯨船喺南太平洋一帶航行。1842年七月南太平洋馬克薩斯群島[3],佢同泰皮族接觸,十一月,喺艘捕鯨船上做咗掟叉手四個月。1843年八月加入美國戰艦美國號(United States)服役,1844年十月喺波士頓上岸,定居麻省。

1845年開始寫小說,1846年喺倫敦出版小說Typee,隔年出 Omoo。佢開始讀莎士比亞作品,1849年出版《雷得本》,1850年出版《白外衣》,獲得好評。1847年同伊麗莎伯蕭(Elizabeth Shaw)結婚,喺加拿大度蜜月。有兩仔兩女。1850年喺皮茨菲爾德定居,住咗十三年。1850年2月,佢開始跟佢海上嘅經歷來寫《無比敵》,前後十七個月,1851年夏天寫完出版。

《無比敵》呢部小說日後譽為美國最正嘅小說之一,但係出版頭一年只賣得五本,唔賣得亦唔轟動,梅爾維爾好失望。要到本書出版七十年之後,先受到廣泛重視。1866年之後佢自費出詩集《戰事集》、Clarel、《約翰瑪爾同其他水手》同《梯摩里昂》,1891年9月28號,梅爾維爾喺紐約死於心臟肥大[4],潦倒以終。葬喺紐約嘅木林草地墓園(Woodlawn Cemetery)。

文獻[編輯]

  • Adler, Joyce (1981). War in Melville's Imagination. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-0575-8. 
  • Arvin, Newton (2002). Herman Melville. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3871-3. 
  • Bryant, John (1986). A Companion to Melville Studies. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-23874-X. 
  • Bryant, John (1993). Melville and Repose: The Rhetoric of Humor in the American Renaissance. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507782-2. 
  • Chamberlain, Ray (1985). Monsieur Melville. City: Coach House Pr. ISBN 0-88910-239-2. 
  • Delbanco, Andrew (2005). Melville, His World and Work. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40314-0. 
  • Edinger, Edward (1985). Melville's Moby Dick: An American Nekyia (Studies in Jungian Psychology By Jungian Analysts). New Haven: Inner City Books. ISBN 978-0-919123-70-0. 
  • Garner, Stanton (1993). The Civil War World of Herman Melville. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0602-5. 
  • Goldner, Loren (2006). Herman Melville: Between Charlemagne and the Antemosaic Cosmic Man. Race, Class and the Crisis of Bourgeois Ideology in an American Renaissance Writer. Cambridge: Queequeg Publications. ISBN 0-9700308-2-7. 
  • Gretchko, John M. J. (1990). Melvillean Ambiguities. Cleveland: Falk & Bright. 
  • Hardwick, Elizabeth (2000). Herman Melville. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-89158-4. 
  • Hayford, Harrison (2003). Melville's Prisoners. Evanston: Northwestern University Press. ISBN 0-8101-1973-0. 
  • Johnson, Bradley A. (2011). The Characteristic Theology of Herman Melville: Aesthetics, Politics, Duplicity. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock. ISBN 978-1-61097-341-0. 
  • Levine, Robert (1998). The Cambridge Companion to Herman Melville. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55571-X. 
  • Martin, Robert (1986). Hero, Captain, and Stranger: Male Friendship, Social Critique, and Literary Form in the Sea Novels of Herman Melville. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1672-8. 
  • Miller, Perry (1956). The Raven and the Whale: The War of Words and Wits in the Era of Poe and Melville. New York: Harvest Book. 
  • Parini, Jay (2010). The Passages of H.M.: A novel of Herman Melville. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-52277-9. 
  • Parker, Hershel (1996). Herman Melville: A Biography. Volume I, 1819–1851. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5428-8. 
  • Parker, Hershel (2005). Herman Melville: A Biography. Volume II, 1851–1891. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8186-2. 
  • Renker, Elizabeth (1998). Strike through the Mask: Herman Melville and the Scene of Writing. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5875-5. 
  • Robertson-Lorant, Laurie (1996). Melville: A Biography. New York: Clarkson Potter/Publishers. ISBN 0-517-59314-9. 
  • Rogin, Michael (1983). Subversive Genealogy: The Politics and Art of Herman Melville. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50609-X. 
  • Rosenberg, Warren (1984). "'Deeper than Sappho': Melville, Poetry, and the Erotic". Modern Language Studies. 14 (1). 

TemplateData[編輯]

This template formats a citation to an article in a magazine or journal, using the provided source information (e.g. journal name, author, title, issue, URL) and various formatting options.

模版參數

呢個模有特定格式。

參數描述狀態
Last namelastauthorauthor1authorslast1

The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

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Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

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The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

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Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

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The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

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Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

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The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

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Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

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Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

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The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

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Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

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Display authorsdisplayauthorsdisplay-authors

number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used;

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Author maskauthor-mask

Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead

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Last author ampersandlast-author-amplastauthoramp

When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

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Author separatorauthor-separator

Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space; a space must be encoded as  

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Author name separatorauthor-name-separator

Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as  

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Vancouver style authorsvauthors

comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses

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Source datedate

Date of the source; do not wikilink. As listed in the publication

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Summer 2017
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Year of publicationyear

Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed

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Original yearorig-yearorigyear

Original year of publication; provide specifics

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Editor last nameeditor-lasteditor1-last

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-last', 'editor'

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Editor first nameeditor-firsteditor1-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-first'

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Editor linkeditor-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-link'

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Editor last name 2editor2-lasteditor2

The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

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Editor link 2editor2-linkeditor2linkeditorlink2

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor.

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The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

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Editor link 3editor3-linkeditor3linkeditorlink3

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor.

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Editor last name 4editor4-lasteditor4

The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

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Editor link 4editor4-linkeditor4linkeditorlink4

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor.

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Editor last name 5editor5-lasteditor5

The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

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Editor link 5editor5-linkeditor5linkeditorlink5

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor.

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Editor last name 6editor6-lasteditor6

The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

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Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor.

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Editor last name 7editor7-lasteditor7

The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

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Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor.

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Editor last name 8editor8-lasteditor8

The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

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Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor.

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Editor last name 9editor9-lasteditor9

The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

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Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

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Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor.

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Othersothers

Used to record other contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'

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Titletitle

The title of the article; can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in quotes.

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Script titlescript-title

For titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...

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Translated titletrans-titletrans_title

An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

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URLurlURL

The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type "http://..." or maybe even the  protocol relative scheme "//..."

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https://www.nytimes.com/...
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Dead URLdead-urldeadurl

If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

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Formatformat

Format of the work referred to by 'url' ('url' is required when using 'format'); examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

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Departmentdepartment

Department within the periodical

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Journaljournal

Name of the source journal; may be wikilinked; displays in italics; alias of 'work'

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Chapterchapter

The chapter heading of the source

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Typetype

Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

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Seriesseriesversion

Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal; alias of 'version'

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Languagelanguage

The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templates

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Editionedition

When the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed with ' ed.'

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Location of publicationlocation

Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place; alias of 'place'

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Publisherpublisher

Name of the publisher; displays after title

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Place of publicationpublication-place

Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

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Publication datepublication-date

Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink

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Volumevolume

For one publication published in several volumes

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Issue identifier when the source is part of a series that is published periodically

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Pagepage

Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

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Pagespages

Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'

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Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

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arXiv identifierarxiv

An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

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ASINasin

Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

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ASIN TLDasin-tld

ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

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Bibcodebibcode

Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

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biorXivbiorxiv

biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

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CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

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DOIdoi

Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

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DOI broken datedoi-broken-date

The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

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ISBNisbn

International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

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ISSNissn

International Standard Serial Number (print); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

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eISSNeissn

International Standard Serial Number (online); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

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jfm codejfm

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

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JSTORjstor

JSTOR identifier

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LCCNlccn

Library of Congress Control Number

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MRmr

Mathematical Reviews identifier

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OCLCoclc

Online Computer Library Center number

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OLol

Open Library identifier

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Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

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PubMed Center article number

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PMIDpmid

PubMed Unique Identifier

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RFCrfc

Request for Comments number

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自動值
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SSRNssrn

Social Science Research Network

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Zblzbl

Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

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idid

A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

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URL access levelurl-access

Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

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Archive URLarchive-urlarchiveurl

The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

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Archive datearchive-datearchivedate

Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

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日子可選
URL access dateaccess-dateaccessdate

The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

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Registrationregistration

If the reference requires registration, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

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Subscriptionsubscription

If the reference requires a subscription, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

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Lay URLlay-urllayurl

URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'

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Lay sourcelay-sourcelaysource

Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

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Lay datelay-datelaydate

Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

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Quotequote

Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

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Postscriptpostscript

The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined; to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

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.
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Refref

An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates

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Separatorseparator

The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as   to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

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.
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Content deliverer (i.e. Database)via

Provider of the article (not the publisher), usually an aggregator of journal articles or a repository

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JSTOR, Project MUSE, Elsevier Science Direct
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Bibcode access levelbibcode-access

If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

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DOI access leveldoi-access

If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

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HDL access levelhdl-access

If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

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Jstor access leveljstor-access

If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

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OpenLibrary access levelol-access

If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

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HDL access levelosti-access

If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

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  • Spark, Clare L. (2001). Hunting Captain Ahab: Psychological Warfare and the Melville Revival (第rev.ed. paperback 2006版). Kent: Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-888-7. 
  • Sullivan, Wilson (1972). New England Men of Letters. New York: Atheneum. ISBN 0-02-788680-8. 
  • Szendy, Peter (2009). Prophecies of Leviathan. Reading Past Melville. New York: Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-3154-6. 
  • Weisberg, Richard (1984). The Failure of the Word: The Lawyer as Protagonist in Modern Fiction. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04592-1. 

[編輯]

  1. Parker, Vol. 1, 23
  2. David K. Titus, "Herman Melville at the Albany Academy", Melville Society Extracts, May 2003, no. 42, pp. 1, 4-10. Accessed August 4, 2008.
  3. Miller, 5
  4. Delbanco, 319