五大性格特質

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
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五大性格特質嘅圖解

五大性格特質英文Big Five personality traitsB5)喺性格心理學上係指五個影響性格嘅主要因素。五大性格特質建基於自我報告性格測驗:喺 1980 年代,有班研究者搵咗班受試者返嚟,叫佢哋填一份性格測驗,份測驗有一大柞描述自己性格嘅句子(例如「我鍾意秩序」呀噉),受試者每句句子都要填自己有幾同意嗰句句子講嘅嘢;跟住班研究者對得出嘅數據做因素分析,發覺啲受試者喺啲題目上嘅分數可以用五個因素解釋嗮,而班研究者最後就按照每個因素對應嗰啲句子喺語義上似係反映緊咩嚟幫每個因素改名,而且打後第啲研究者都得出相同嘅結果。呢五個因素就係所謂嘅五大性格特質,人稱 OCEAN

描述[編輯]

五大性格特質嘅描述如下[1][2]

  • 經驗開放度(openness to experience,O):一般俾人認為係反映一個人有幾鍾意享受唔同嘅體驗;經驗開放度高嘅人會鍾意藝術、鍾意冒險而且充滿好奇心,一般認為呢啲人會比較有創造力想像力,亦都有學者話經驗開放度高嘅人容易因為貪新鮮而走去做出一啲冒險嘅行為,例如係貪新鮮吸毒噉。喺英文當中,俾人指係反映經驗開放度嘅句子有以下呢啲[3]
    • I have a rich vocabulary.(「我詞彙量好豐富。」)
    • I have a vivid imagination.(「我想像嘢想像得好生動。」)
    • I have excellent ideas.(「我諗到啲計仔好正。」)
  • 盡責度(conscientiousness,C):一般俾人為係反映一個人嘅計劃自控能力;盡責度高嘅人做起嘢上嚟會集中精神,而且能夠有自控能力,壓抑自己嘅衝動,行事嗰陣傾向會事先計劃好而唔係吓吓都抱住「船到橋頭自然直」嘅態度;順帶一提,盡責度呢樣嘢會隨住年紀上升,然後到咗老年開始下降。俾人指係反映盡責度嘅句子有以下呢啲[4]
    • I am always prepared.(「我不溜都做定準備。」)
    • I get chores done right away.(「我有親家務就會即刻做好佢。」)
    • I like order.(「我鍾意秩序。」)
  • 外向度(extraversion,E):一般俾人為係反映一個人嘅有幾傾向對外界嘅嘢投入;外向度高嘅人鍾意同人互動,而且成日都俾人形容係「充滿咗能量」,講嘢多,傾向喺社交環境當中有主導性嘅地位;相對嚟講,內向(introverted)嘅人就啱啱相反,會少講嘢少同人互動[5]。俾人指係反映外向度嘅句子有以下呢啲:
    • I start conversations.(「我會帶頭傾偈。」)
    • I talk to a lot of different people at parties.(「開 party 嗰陣我會同好多唔同嘅人傾。」)
    • I do not talk a lot. (Reversed)(「我講嘢唔多。」;掉轉計,即係話呢句嘢分數高反映外向度低。)
  • 親和度(agreeableness,A):一般俾人為係反映一個人「心地有幾好」;親和度高嘅人鍾意和諧,想同其他人和睦共處,會做出傾向做出利他嘅行為,肯同其他人作出妥協,而且想同身邊嘅人建立信任嘅關係,亦都傾向容易信任其他人。俾人指係反映親和度嘅句子有以下呢啲[1]
    • I feel others' emotions.(「我感受到其他人嘅情緒。」)
    • I make people feel at ease.(「我令人覺得輕鬆。」)
    • I insult people. (Reversed)(「我會鬧人。」;掉轉計,即係話呢句嘢分數高反映親和度低。)
  • 神經質(neuroticism,N),又有叫情緒不穩度(emotional instability):一般俾人為係反映一個人「情緒有幾唔穩定」;神經質高嘅人對於心理壓力嘅容忍能力比較低,好容易郁啲咦有少少壓力就出現強烈嘅囉囉攣等嘅負面情緒;相對嚟講,神經質低嘅人情緒傾向穩定,就算遇到巨大嘅壓力都唔會點出現明顯嘅負面情緒。俾人指係反映神經質嘅句子有以下呢啲[6][7]
    • I get stressed out easily.(「我好易就覺得壓力好大。」)
    • I worry about things.(「我會擔心一啲嘢。」)
    • I am relaxed most of the time. (Reversed)(「我好多時都幾放鬆下。」;掉轉計,即係話呢句嘢分數高反映神經質低。)

批評[編輯]

五大性格特質取得咗一定嘅成功,但廣受人批評:實證嘅研究表明,五大性格特質的確能夠預測[註 1]好多重要嘅變數,例如係工作表現[1];不過有好多心理學家都質疑五大性格特質係咪可以攞嚟做一個性格心理學理論-呢啲心理學家主張,五大性格特質靠嘅係睇啲人用語言對性格嘅描述,而唔係靠(例如)對行為或者腦活動嘅觀察,即係話五大性格特質反映嘅唔淨只係人喺行為、認知同情緒上嘅個體差異(實際上嘅性格),仲反映咗人對呢啲差異嘅感知同埋佢哋點樣用言語嚟描述呢啲感知(後者呢點俾人覺得屬語言學或者語言心理學嘅範疇);基於呢點,呢班心理學家覺得好難說服人話五大性格特質真係反映緊「實際嘅性格由呢五大特質主宰」,認為五大性格特質頂嗮櫳只可以算係反映緊「人零舍在意身邊嘅人嘅呢五個特質,所以零舍傾向用言語描述呢五個特質」或者類似嘅嘢。因為噉,有好多性格心理學家都覺得理論性嘅性格心理學研究唔可以靠五大性格特質[8]

註釋[編輯]

  1. 迴歸分析等嘅統計方法

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Rothmann, S., & Coetzer, E. P. (2003). The big five personality dimensions and job performance. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 29(1), 68-74.
  2. Roccas, Sonia; Sagiv, Lilach; Schwartz, Shalom H.; Knafo, Ariel (2002). "The Big Five Personality Factors and Personal Values". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 28 (6): 789–801.
  3. Ambridge B (2014). Psy-Q: You know your IQ - now test your psychological intelligence. Profile. p. 11.
  4. Toegel G, Barsoux JL (2012). "How to become a better leader". MIT Sloan Management Review. 53 (3): 51–60.
  5. Laney M.O. (2002). The Introvert Advantage. Canada: Thomas Allen & Son Limited. pp. 28, 35.
  6. Jeronimus B.F., Riese H., Sanderman R., Ormel J. (October 2014). "Mutual reinforcement between neuroticism and life experiences: a five-wave, 16-year study to test reciprocal causation". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 107 (4): 751–64.
  7. Norris C.J., Larsen J.T., Cacioppo J.T. (September 2007). "Neuroticism is associated with larger and more prolonged electrodermal responses to emotionally evocative pictures". Psychophysiology. 44 (5): 823–26.
  8. Eysenck H.J. (1992). "Four ways five factors are not basic" (PDF). Personality and Individual Differences. 13 (8): 667–73.

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