情感

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
(由情緒跳轉過嚟)
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢
喺感受到唔同情緒嗰陣,會有唔同嘅面部表情

情感粵拼cing4 gam2英文emotion),又或者叫情緒,係對一系列主觀認知經驗嘅通稱,係集合唔同感覺思想同埋行為產生嘅心理生理反應,譬如開心傷心好奇等等。

概論[編輯]

睇埋:心理

心理學定義上,情感可以泛指啲同動機相關嘅身心狀態,每種情感都會對應某類特定嘅刺激,亦會對應某拃特定嘅變化,令個人有動機去做某啲行為[1]。舉例說明,

係種情感[2]

  • 刺激:一隻動物會驚,通常係因為感知到啲危險嘢;
  • 身心變化:隻動物驚,就會心跳加快同埋對擘到大一大;
  • 動機行為:佢往往會有股強嘅動力想逃走,遠離令佢驚嘅刺激。

厭惡都可以想像成種情感[3][4]

  • 刺激:污糟嘢,好似係第啲動物嘅排泄物或者腐爛嘅嘢呀噉;
  • 身心變化:失去食嘢嘅意慾(令佢唔會食一啲接近病原體嘅嘢食)、有想嘅感覺(令佢嘔返啲可能有病原體嘅嘢食出嚟);
  • 動機行為:遠離引起厭惡感嘅物件。

好奇都可以想像成種情感[5]:Sec. 2

  • 刺激:源於隻動物感知到啲認知上有刺激性嘅事物(睇下面);
  • 身心變化:一隻動物覺得好奇嗰陣,唔會好受壓,彷彿好似件事物係一樣犒賞[6]
  • 動機行為:佢仲會有探索行為,會(例如)行埋引起佢好奇嗰件事物度,想睇清楚啲件事物。

同認知嘅啦掕[編輯]

睇埋:認知

認知有別於情緒,但會同情緒有所互動:傳統嚟講,啲人好多時都覺得情緒同認知係兩樣唔啦更嘅嘢,但近期啲嘅研究顯示,呢兩樣嘢之間有好多互動,而且情緒喺某啲情況下仲有可能會幫到個認知系統做更加準確嘅判斷同決定,亦都有啲情況係正面嘅情緒提升一個人喺認知方面嘅表現[7]

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. Panksepp, J. (2004). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. Oxford university press. p. 9. "Our emotional feelings reflect our ability to subjectively experience certain states of the nervous system."
  2. LeDoux, J. E. (2012). Evolution of human emotion: a view through fear. In Progress in brain research (Vol. 195, pp. 431-442). Elsevier.
  3. Chapman, H. A., Kim, D. A., Susskind, J. M., & Anderson, A. K. (2009). In bad taste: Evidence for the oral origins of moral disgust (PDF). Science, 323(5918), 1222-1226.
  4. Curtis, V.; Biran, A. (2001). "Dirt, disgust, and disease: Is hygiene in our genes?". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 44 (1): 17-31.
  5. Wu, Q., & Miao, C. (2013). Curiosity: From psychology to computation (PDF). ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 46(2), 1-26.
  6. Costa, Vincent D.; Tran, Valery L.; Turchi, Janita; Averbeck, Bruno B. (2014). "Dopamine modulates novelty seeking behavior during decision making". Behavioral Neuroscience. 128 (4): 556-566.
  7. Harmat, L., de Manzano, Ö., Theorell, T., Högman, L., Fischer, H., & Ullén, F. (2015). Physiological correlates of the flow experience during computer game playing. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 97(1), 1-7.