感知

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
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一個簡單嘅圖解;環境嘅刺激造成感知,而感知左右一個人嘅行動。

感知粵拼gam2 zi1英文perception,嚟自拉丁文「perceptio」)係認知功能嘅一種,涉及一個心靈表示、處理、同組織透過感覺器官得到嘅感官訊息[1]:人嘅會由外界接收各種訊號-眼塊視網膜(retina)會感應、耳會感應、鼻會感應空氣當中嘅化學物等等[2]-跟住呢啲感覺器官嘅感覺神經細胞會向個射訊號,話俾個腦知佢哋感應到啲乜;喺呢個過程當中,個腦同神經系統其餘部份會以某啲表示啲訊息同對呢啲訊息作出初步嘅處理,而且個腦唔衹會被動噉吸取訊息,仲會主動過濾收到嘅訊息(例子可以睇吓注意力);呢啲(好多時無意識嘅)過程都係感知研究嘅範疇[3][4]

感知可以分做兩大過程[5]

  • 由下至上過程(bottom-up process):感官會客觀噉將佢哋收到嘅訊息傳上去個腦嗰度,俾個腦知道外界有乜。
  • 由上至下過程(top-down process):個腦會按自身嘅目的,控制同指揮感官以及點樣處理感官訊息,例如係按自己想睇乜而移動對眼,影響對眼睇到乜。

認知科學(cognitive science)上有好多方法研究感知:認知科學家可以用心理物理學(psychophysics)嘅方法,做實驗睇吓啲刺激嘅物理性質會點影響人對呢啲刺激嘅體驗[6]神經科學(neuroscience)上嘅研究又可以用神經成像嘅方法,睇吓人喺感知外界刺激嗰陣個腦入面發生緊乜事[7];而人工智能(AI)同相關領域又會嘗試用電腦程式模擬人類嘅感知,教電腦做出好似人類感知噉嘅行為[3][8]

感知會內部唔同功能互相影響,又會同第啲認知功能互相影響:注意力會由外界訊息嗰度篩選一部份出嚟集中處理,影響感知處理乜訊息,而當一個人感知到一個零舍重要嘅訊息,佢又傾向會將注意力轉移去嗰個訊息嘅來源;感知吸收到嘅訊息有一部份會進入記憶,而過去嘅記憶又會影響一個人點樣感知[3];另一方面,感知功能具有分部性-個腦嘅唔同腦區負責處理唔同嘅感知訊息,例如處理嗅覺嘅腦區會傳訊去處理味覺嘅腦區,令嗅覺訊息會明顯噉影響味覺[9]

睇埋[編輯]

參考[編輯]

  • Arnheim, R. (1969). Visual Thinking. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24226-5.
  • Flanagan, J. R., & Lederman, S. J. (2001). "'Neurobiology: Feeling bumps and holes. News and Views", Nature, 412(6845):389–91. (PDF)
  • Gibson, J. J. (1966). The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems, Houghton Mifflin.
  • Gibson, J. J. (1987). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-89859-959-8
  • Robles-De-La-Torre, G. (2006). "The Importance of the Sense of Touch in Virtual and Real Environments". IEEE Multimedia,13(3), Special issue on Haptic User Interfaces for Multimedia Systems, pp. 24–30.

[編輯]

  1. Merikle, P. M., Smilek, D., & Eastwood, J. D. (2001). Perception without awareness: Perspectives from cognitive psychology. Cognition, 79(1-2), 115-134.
  2. Goldstein (2009) pp. 5–7.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Gregory, Richard. "Perception" in Gregory, Zangwill (1987) pp. 598–601.
  4. Bernstein, Douglas A. (5 March 2010). Essentials of Psychology. Cengage Learning. pp. 123–124.
  5. Mechelli, A., Price, C. J., Friston, K. J., & Ishai, A. (2004). Where bottom-up meets top-down: neuronal interactions during perception and imagery. Cerebral cortex, 14(11), 1256-1265.
  6. Takahashi, T., Oono, H., & Radford, M. H. (2008). Psychophysics of time perception and intertemporal choice models. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 387(8-9), 2066-2074.
  7. Romo, R., & Salinas, E. (2003). Cognitive neuroscience: flutter discrimination: neural codes, perception, memory and decision making. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4(3), 203.
  8. Zadeh, L. A. (2001). A new direction in AI: Toward a computational theory of perceptions. AI magazine, 22(1), 73-73.
  9. Comeau, T. B., Epstein, J. B., & Migas, C. (2001). Taste and smell dysfunction in patients receiving chemotherapy: a review of current knowledge. Supportive care in cancer, 9(8), 575-580.

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