智能

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舉世聞名嘅雕像《思索者》;思考嘅能力一般都俾人認為係智能嘅重要指標之一。

智能粵拼zi3 nang4英文intelligence),喺嚴格嘅心理學神經科學上嚟講,係一個有些少含糊嘅概念[1],有好多唔同嘅定義,包括咗思考、對邏輯嘅運用、理解自我意識理性計劃創意、同埋解決問題等等都俾人認定係量度智能嘅重要指標。最廣義上嚟講,智能可以定義做「一個個體感知同埋推斷訊息、將呢啲訊息儲起成為知識、並且運用知識適應環境嘅能力」。

心理學等科學領域對智能嘅研究傳統上多數都集中喺人類身上做嘅[1],但係事實係,智能呢家嘢喺人類以外嘅動物[2]甚至乎某啲植物[3]身上都可以觀察得到。呢啲對智能嘅研究令到廿一世紀嘅人類開始咗嘗試用電腦程式等嘅方法令到人造嘅機械都能夠有類似有智能嘅行為,而機械所展示嘅智能就係所謂嘅人工智能(artificial intelligence)。

個名點嚟[編輯]

睇埋:智性

西人喺好耐之前經已有喺度思考有關智能呢個概念嘅問題。古希臘哲學家所創嘅古典哲學當中有提到智性(nous;希臘字母:νοῦς)呢個概念[4],指人類心靈裏面幫人分別真偽嗰一部份,例如阿里士多德(Aristotle)就有詳細噉講佢心目中嘅人類心靈嘅構造,仲指出話智性係有別於感官、想像、同埋理性嘅。古羅馬嘅人喺文化同思想上多方面都跟從古希臘,而現代英文當中嘅「intelligence」呢個字就係嚟自拉丁文(古羅馬嘅語言)嘅字「intelligentia」或者「intellēctus」嘅-呢兩個字嚟自拉丁文動詞「intelligere」,即係「了解」或者「感知」噉解。

中世紀(大約 5 至 15 世紀之間嗰段時期),「intellectus」成為咗歐洲學者常用嘅一個拉丁文字,主要用嚟指「理解」(註:嗰陣時啲歐洲學者寫正式嘢多數都係用拉丁文嘅,好少可會用平民語言寫嘢),而且佢哋喺翻譯啲用希臘文寫嘅書嗰陣時會將「nous」譯做「intellectus」,用嚟研究同思考有關人類靈魂嘅不死性或者智慧等嘅相關問題。

喺打後嘅 18 世紀嘅啟蒙時期(The Age of Enlightenment)嘅時候,歐洲嘅思想家開始反對基督教會嗰種思考方式,並且開始用英文等平民化嘅語言嚟寫書,開始喺嚴肅嘅哲學著作當中用「understanding」呢類平民化嘅字眼,並且放棄「intellectus」呢啲教會用嘅字[5][6]。於是喺英文寫嘅哲學當中,「intelligence」呢個相關嘅字都少咗人用。後嚟要去到廿世紀嘅心理學研究當中,「intelligence」呢個字先開始再俾人廣泛噉採用[7]

跟手冇幾耐,西人嘅學問話噉快就傳到去成個世界-包括咗大中華地區。而喺地區,「intelligence」一般都係俾人譯做「智能」嘅-取自古漢人以「智」指「分別是非嘅能力」[8][9]

定義[編輯]

到咗廿一世紀頭,心理學界對「智能」呢個字應該點定義仲有相當嘅爭議[10]

廿世紀尾嘅研究[編輯]

喺 1994 年,52 個心理學家喺華爾街日報嗰度共同發表咗一份題為《主流科學論智能》(Mainstream Science on Intelligence)嘅宣言,喺份宣言入面噉樣講[11][12]

英文原文:"A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do."
粵文翻譯:(智能係)一個好普遍化嘅心智能力,包含咗做推理、計劃、解決問題、抽象思考、理解複雜諗法、快速噉學習、同埋由經驗學習嘅能力。佢(智能)唔淨只係書本上嘅學習、狹窄嘅學業能力、或者做試卷嗰陣嘅醒目,而係反映一個更廣同深入嘅了解我哋周圍環境嘅能力-「理解」、「明辨」啲嘢、或者「諗到」要做啲乜。

而 1995 年由美國心理學會出版嘅報告《智能:已知同未知》(Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns)就噉樣講[13]

英文原文:"Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: a given person's intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria. Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, and none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen, somewhat different, definitions."

粵文翻譯:唔同嘅個體之間喺理解複雜諗頭嘅能力、有效噉適應環境、由經驗嗰度學習、做推理、用思考克服障礙(等方面)上有差異。雖然呢啲個體差異可以好巨大,佢哋(啲個體差異)唔係完全前後一致嘅:是但揾個人,佢嘅智能表現會隨時間、領域、同埋判斷嘅準則而有變化。「智能」呢個概念係對於闡明同組織呢一柞複雜現象嘅嘗試。雖然喺某啲地方(心理學界方面)做咗唔少嘅闡明,但係目前仲未有可以解答嗮所有重要問題嘅概念化,而且冇一個係個個學者都認同嘅。事實係,當早嗰排有兩打重要嘅理論家俾人叫佢哋定義智能嗰陣,佢哋俾咗兩打彼此之間有些少唔同嘅定義出嚟。

主要學者嘅意見[編輯]

學者 引用
Alfred Binet英文Alfred Binet 判斷,又叫「有 sense」,係改變自己適應環境嘅能力... (同埋)自我批判[14]
David Wechsler英文David Wechsler 一個個體整體上有目的噉行動、理性噉思考、同埋有效噉應對佢周圍環境嘅能力[15]
Lloyd Humphreys英文Lloyd Humphreys 將訊息同概念技能吸收、儲起喺記憶、提取、結合、比較、同埋喺新環境嗰度運用[16]
Howard Gardner英文Howard Gardner 對於我嚟講,一個人類喺智能上嘅有能一定表示咗一系列解難嘅技能-令到個個體能夠解決一啲佢撞到嘅實質嘅問題或者困難,以及喺適當嗰陣,創造一件有效嘅產物-呢件產物會表示有可能揾到或者製造新嘅問題-所以會為(將來)得到新嘅知識奠基[17]
Linda Gottfredson英文Linda Gottfredson 應付認知複雜嘅能力[18]
Sternberg & Salter 有目的又具適應性嘅行為[19]
Reuven Feuerstein英文Reuven Feuerstein 佢哋嘅理論形容智能係「人類獨有、改變佢哋自身嘅認知功能嘅結構去適應生活情況係噉變緊嘅要求嘅能力」[20]
Legg & Hutter 結合咗多過 70 個嚟自心理學、哲學、同埋人工智能研究嘅定義:「智能表示咗一個自主個體喺唔同環境下達到自己目的嘅能力」[10],呢樣嘢經已有數學上嘅形式化[21]
Alexander Wissner-Gross英文Alexander Wissner-Gross F = T ∇ S[22]

「智能係一股力量 ,作用係將(嗰個個體)未來喺行動上嘅自由最大化,或者令到個人可以有嘅選項持續開放。智能嘅作用嘅強度以 代表,而未來嘅選項嘅多樣性係以 代表,而 就係未來有幾久遠。簡單啲講,智能唔鍾意俾啲嘢韞住。」

人類智能[編輯]

巴塞隆拿聖家大教堂俾好多人認為係人類建築史當中首屈一指嘅傑作;動物當中極少係識得起大過自己身體好多嘅建築物嘅。
內文: 人類智能智商、 同 一般智能因素

人類智能係指人類嘅智能。喺已知嘅生物當中,人類出嗮名喺智能上表現出眾:人類曉做(第啲動物做唔到嘅)極之複雜嘅認知作業,而且具有高度嘅動機同埋自我意識[23]。人類嘅智能令到佢哋能夠記住事物嘅特性(有陣時甚至唔使直接見過嗰樣事物),並且喺未來運用呢啲知識達到自身嘅目的,以及做學習、形成概念、理解、做推理、揾出規律、計劃、同解決問題等等嘅認知功能,呢啲過程喺第啲動物身上都觀察得到(例如係都好明顯識學習),但係人類能夠靠呢啲認知功能創造出一啲喺動物當中極之少見嘅嘢,例如係語言、以及一啲大過自己身體好多嘅建築物呀噉[24][25]

喺人類當中,人與人之間喺智能上嘅差異可以用智商(intelligence quotient,簡稱「IQ」)嚟量度。研究顯示,一個大人嘅 IQ 有幾高程度上係由遺傳因素話事嘅-遺傳度超過 60%[26]

點進化出嚟[編輯]

睇埋:人類智能嘅進化

「人類嘅呢啲獨特能力係點進化出嚟嘅」喺心理學同動物學等嘅領域上係一個好多科學家研究緊嘅課題[27]。廿一世紀初嘅科學界目前有多個假說嘗試解釋呢個現象,但係仲未有一個一致嘅共識。

喺對人類智能嘅進化嘅研究當中,其中一個最受人採用嘅假說係所謂嘅社會腦假說(social brain hypothesis)。呢個假說由英國人類學家 Robin Dunbar 提出,話人類之所以會進化出高度嘅智能,唔係因為要解決佢哋喺所住嘅生態系當中撞到嘅問題,而係要為咗喺大又複雜嘅社會當中生存[28][29]:隨住早期人類開始聚埋一大羣噉生活,一個人喺每日當中都要應對好多人際關係,要記住大量嘅訊息,例如係「邊個邊個同大王關係好要攀附」或者「邊個邊個做好多衰嘢所以信唔過」等等,而要記住呢啲訊息同埋喺同人相處嗰陣(冇意識噉)評估對方有幾信得過需要個有高度嘅運算能力,所以令到人類喺物競天擇上有壓力要進化出運算能力更加勁嘅腦[28]

動物智能[編輯]

一隻長尾獼猴用舊石頭嘗試打爛一粒堅果嘅殼;識得運用工具解難一般都俾人認為係高智能嘅表現。
內文: 動物認知

智能方面嘅研究不嬲都係集中喺人類身上做嘅,但係科學家亦都有嘗試揾好多方法嚟研究動物嘅智能,呢個領域就係所謂嘅動物認知(animal cognition)[30]。研究動物認知嘅科學家有興趣研究某啲特定物種嘅智能,又有研究唔同物種之間嘅智能比較。佢哋會用好多方法要啲動物解決一啲難題(例如係要佢哋按某啲步驟撳掣嚟攞嘢食),亦都有研究動物用數字甚至語言諗嘢嘅能力。呢個領域面對嘅挑戰包括咗要點樣作出一個喺唔同物種上都通用嘅智能定義,又要將用嚟量度動物智能嘅架生操作化,確保佢哋做到準確嘅量度。

根據對動物認知嘅研究,動物當中有好多都有高度智能:人類以外嘅哺乳類普遍都有相當高嘅智能,而黑猩猩屬(chimpanzee)同埋其他人科動物、海豚大笨象大家鼠、同都有相當高嘅智能,例如有研究顯示,狗曉理解「呃人」呢個概念,曉喺實驗者睇唔到嗰陣偷嘢食[31][32];喺鳥類方面,鸚鵡烏鴉都俾人指出係智能好高嘅,當中烏鴉仲曉運用工具達到自己嘅目的[33]。而爬蟲類魚類都有一定嘅智能。

冇脊椎動物當中,頭足綱(cephalopod;包括咗八爪魚墨魚等等)喺動物認知研究上好受注目:佢哋嘅神經系統脊椎動物嘅大相逕庭,但係就有極高度嘅智能,例如八爪魚就識得用多種嘅工具[34]。而喺頭足網以外,亦都有一啲節肢動物俾人認定係具有高智能嘅,好似係識得起大過自己身體好多嘅竇嘅蜜蜂噉。

非人類嘅一般智能因素[編輯]

內文: 非人類嘅一般智能因素

有證據顯示,人類以外嘅動物都有所謂嘅一般智能因素[35]一般智能因素g factor,簡稱「g」)係指一個量度一個個體普遍智能能力嘅統計數值,一般都係用喺人類身上嘅(因為冇可能叫動物答試卷上面嘅問題)。但係有動物認知研究就嘗試計第啲動物嘅一般智能因素,例如有份研究就攞咗一大柞描述 62 個靈長目物種嘅認知能力嘅數據返嚟,並且做咗個因素分析(factor analysis),發現唔同嘅智能量度方法彼此之間有強烈嘅相關,呢個證據顯示咗,雖然(例如)創新、社會學習、思考、同解難等係相當之唔同嘅認知作業,但係佢哋都會俾同一個隱藏嘅因素支配住[35]-呢個因素就係所謂嘅「g」。

相關嘅研究顯示,喺靈長目當中,g 能夠解釋個體喺認知能力上嘅差異嘅 47% [35],而喺老鼠當中,呢個數值就係 55 到 60%,呢啲數值同喺人類當中揾到嘅(40 到 50%)好接近[36]

植物智能[編輯]

內文: 植物智能

雖然植物用肉眼睇好似連郁都唔識郁噉,而且連神經系統都冇,但係有科學家發現,植物曉感應自己四圍嘅環境,喺自己嘅內部組成一啲有關「個世界係點嘅樣嘅」模型,並且按照呢啲訊息調較自己嘅生理狀態同埋表現型,等自己喺生存同繁殖上更加成功[37][38]。舉個例說明,有研究指,有好多植物曉得喺向橫生撞到障礙物嗰陣將條根改為向上生,而且仲會定時定候耷返條根落嚟睇吓過咗舊障礙物未[39]。按照正話提到嗰啲定義,喺廣義上,植物嘅呢啲能力經已可以算係智能嘅一種型式[37]

話雖如此,「植物算唔算有智能」喺廿一世紀初嘅科學界都仲係一個好有爭議性嘅問題。有個反對意見就指出,評定一個系統係咪有智能嘅其中一個重要準則係,嗰個系統要有能力創造同運用記憶,並且按照喺經驗當中學到嘅嘢改變自己行為。呢個定義包含咗人類、絕大多數嘅非人類動物、以及係用咗機械學習(machine learning)技術令到佢哋曉學習嘅人工智能機械人,但係唔包含喺多種植物當中觀察到嗰啲高度自動化嘅感官同反應。但係後嚟嘅研究顯示,植物當中有一啲物種的確識得分辨正面同負面嘅經驗(即係對正面嘅刺激同負面嘅刺激俾唔同反應),而且呢啲物種嘅植物個體仲曉按照過往嘅經驗嚟改變對外界刺激嘅反應,有啲甚至仲識得同同類溝通,令同類知道自己嘅位置等嘅訊息[40][41][42]。家吓有好多科學家都認同植物係具有智能嘅[43][44]

人工智能[編輯]

內文: 人工智能

人工智能(artificial intelligence,簡稱「AI」)係電腦科學心理學嘅一個交叉領域,專門研究點樣用(例如)電腦編程嘅方法令到一部有運算能力嘅機械(例如係電腦)做出好似有智能噉嘅行為[45]。研究人工智能嘅科學家嘅目的係要整出一啲特別嘅(多數係電腦)系統,呢啲系統有目的、曉理解自己周圍環境,並且曉運用呢啲知識去令達到目的嘅機會率最大化[46]。人工智能領域嘅成就包括咗寫出曉做捉棋、解謎、同埋認人樣等多種智能性作業嘅電腦程式,喺好似係自動駕駛汽車[47]等嘅技術上相當有價值。

睇埋[編輯]

參考書[編輯]

  • Binet, Alfred; Simon, Th. (1916). The development of intelligence in children: The Binet-Simon Scale. Publications of the Training School at Vineland New Jersey Department of Research No. 11. E. S. Kite (Trans.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. 
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