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Wikipedia:點樣睇生物分類框How to read a taxobox
灰狼
一隻灰狼
一隻灰狼
瀕危指標
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
最唔使理(Least Concern) (LC)
物種分類
域(Domain): 真核域 Eukaryotic
動物界 Animalia
Subkingdom: 真後生動物亞界 Eumetazoa
Superphylum: 後口動物總門 Deuterostomia
脊索動物門 Chordata
亞門(Subphylum): 脊椎動物亞門 Vertebrata
Infraphylum: 有頷下門 Gnathostomata
超綱Superclass: 四足總綱 Tetrapoda Chordata
哺乳綱 Mammalia
食肉目 Carnivora
犬科 Canidae
犬屬 Canis
C. lupus
二元學名
Canis lupus
(Linnaeus,1758 年)
狼嘅分佈     現今分佈區    原分佈區
狼嘅分佈
    現今分佈區    原分佈區

灰狼粵拼fui1 long4英文grey wolf / gray wolf學名Canis lupus),通常就噉簡稱wolf),係一種源於歐亞大陸北美洲嘅大型犬科動物,分佈喺歐亞同北美嘅溫帶地區,包括咗 38 個次物種。狼外形上嘅特徵包括咗以下呢啲:佢哋嘅耳仔同口鼻冇噉尖(同多數犬科比起上嚟),冬天會生一啲又長又濃密嘅毛,啲毛多數以灰色為主(所以個名就叫「灰狼」),不過都有狼係啲毛以白、紅、同黑等為主色嘅。除咗噉,狼仲係現存犬科動物當中最大隻嘅:成年嘅狼平均有 43 至 45 公斤(95 至 99 )重,而成年嘅狼就平均有 36 至 38.5 公斤(79 至 85 磅)噉重[1][2]

狼係犬屬動物裏面最專化嘅物種,位於食物鏈嘅頂層:狼相當強壯,能夠撞擊大隻嘅獵物同輕易噉制伏細隻過佢哋嘅動物;狼仲有高度嘅智能同社會性,佢哋有能力同同類溝通,一對對或者一家人(阿爸阿媽同啲仔女)噉樣行動,而且仲曉為咗獵食大型動物而同第啲羣嘅狼合作,彼此之間可以互相協調,作出高度組織化同事先計劃過嘅打獵行動[3],所以有能力獵食一啲大隻過佢哋一截嘅大型有蹄類動物,好似係駝鹿噉(成年駝鹿身長閒閒地係狼嘅兩倍),又可以輕易噉捉啲細隻嘅動物(例如係兔仔)嚟食或者食腐肉[4][5]。事實係,狼呢種具有高獵食能力同智能嘅動物通常都係佢哋身處地區內嘅頂級掠食者(apex predator;冇第啲物種能夠獵食佢哋嘅物種)-喺多數情況下,得人類老虎、同有能力對佢哋造成威脅[6][7]

狼同人類嘅關係密切得嚟又千絲萬縷:喺古代,狼成日都會獵食人類所養嘅牲畜,對好多人類羣體嘅生計構成威脅,所以狼同人類嘅關係曾經係相當惡劣嘅-喺古時嘅童話故事同民間傳說當中,狼多數都係扮演奸角[8];到咗現代,人類喺科技上嘅進步令到狼羣難以再對人類造成威脅,多數狼攻擊人類嘅事件都係因為癲狗病而起嘅,冇癲狗病嘅狼好少可會成功殺死大人,而且仲因為人類嘅打獵活動而開始驚人類同傾向遠離人類;雖然係噉,狼史上同人類嘅深遠關係令到佢哋依然成日出現喺大眾媒體當中,而且仲成為咗現代動物學對其研究得最徹底嘅物種之一[9][10][11]

外形[編輯]

狼同郊狼(coyote)嘅比較圖解
灰狼嘅骨架圖解
灰狼嘅下顎圖解

身體結構[編輯]

大細[編輯]

灰狼嘅體型相當大:一隻成年嘅狼身長平均有成 105 至 160 厘米(41 - 63 ),而膊頭高度就平均係 80 至 85 厘米(31 - 33 吋)左右,條尾平均有 29 到 50 厘米(29 - 50 吋)長,而耳仔平均有 9 至 11 厘米(3.5 - 4.3 吋)高,後髀有 22 至 25 厘米(8.7 - 9.8 吋)噉長[12],體重平均(包括公同乸)大約係 40 公斤(88 磅)-灰狼係現存犬科動物當中最大隻嘅,得某啲大型狗品種喺體型上可以拍得住佢哋[13]

雖然係噉,要留意嘅係,唔同地區嘅狼體型上會有唔細嘅差異[14]歐洲狼平均有 38.5 公斤(85 磅)重,北美狼平均有 36 公斤(79 磅)重,而印度阿拉伯地區嘅狼平均有 25 公斤(55 磅)重[15]-一般嚟講,正如伯格曼法則(Bergmann's rule)所預期,啲狼住嘅地區緯度愈高,體型就傾向愈大[12];世上最大隻嘅狼位於加拿大阿拉斯加等嘅極北之地-呢啲地區嘅狼按紀錄可以去到成超過 54 公斤(119 磅)重[16]-體型上係中東狼或者南亞狼嘅三到六倍噉多[17]。而無論喺任何一個狼族群,啲狼乸平均嚟講會比啲狼公輕 5 到 10 磅(2.3 - 4.5 公斤)[16][18]

形狀[編輯]

灰狼喺形狀上有呢啲特徵:

  • 灰狼形狀同郊狼以及亞洲胡狼相似,但係大隻啲,口鼻比較闊,耳仔比較短兼且呈三角形,身體軀幹比較短,條尾比較長[13][19]
  • 狼體形廋但好強壯,背脊傾斜,而條頸充滿咗肌肉[12]
  • 灰狼嘅髀長過第啲犬科嘅,令到佢可以跑得好快,同埋喺雪地上能夠順暢噉行走(有灰狼嘅地區多數冬天可以落雪)[12]
  • 同狼公比起上嚟,狼乸嘅口鼻同額頭比較窄,條頸比較幼,髀比較短,同埋膊頭冇噉龐大[20]

頭殼同牙[編輯]

灰狼嘅頭殼以犬科嚟講比較大同重,額頭闊,又具有強勁嘅。狼嘅頭殼平均嚟講有 23 至 28 厘米(9.1 - 11.0 吋)長同 13 至 15 厘米(5.1 - 5.9 吋)闊[12][21],啲牙又大又重,夠力咬碎骨頭,具有犬科動物當中數一數二噉勁嘅咬合力(睇下圖)[22][23];喺最後排嗰啲大牙有平嘅表面,令到狼可以𡁻嘢食[24]。平時行路嗰陣,狼通常會將個頭擺同背脊一樣噉高或者低過背脊嘅位置,喺處於警戒狀態嗰陣先會愕高個頭[12]

唔同犬科動物
每單位(以公斤計)身體重量
嘅咬合力(以牛頓計)列表[25]
物種 裂肉齒 狗牙
灰狼 131.6 127.3
亞洲豺犬 130.7 132.0
非洲野犬 127.7 131.1
格陵蘭犬澳洲野狗 117.4 114.3
郊狼 107.2 98.9
側紋胡狼 93.0 87.5
亞洲胡狼 89.6 87.7
黑背胡狼 80.6 78.3

[編輯]

黑色毛同白色毛嘅灰狼

長短[編輯]

狼身體唔同部位嘅毛長短不一:一般嚟講,佢哋背脊啲毛最長,背脊中部嘅毛平均有 60 至 77 毫米(2.4 - 2.8 吋)噉長,而前背同頸嗰頭嗰啲毛仲會再長少少;狼膊頭啲毛都好長,雖然多數都唔會超過 90 毫米(3.5 吋)長,但會喺頸嘅周圍形成一個冠,而某啲狼嘅膊頭毛可以有成 110 到 130 毫米(4.3 - 5.1 吋)長;狼面頰嘅毛會延長,形成一叢有少少似鬍鬚噉嘅毛;耳仔嘅內部會有由毛皮嗰度伸出嚟嘅短毛;狼每條髀都有短而有彈性嘅毛,由膝頭一路生到落去跟腱嗰度,啲乸嘅髀毛通常會滑過啲公嘅[12]

色水[編輯]

狼啲毛喺色水上相當多變,可以係近乎純白,但又可以係金、灰、啡、或者黑都有[26],而通常住嘅緯度愈高,啲狼嘅毛色就愈多變[27]。狼嘅毛色冇乜大嘅性別差異,啲狼乸嘅毛有陣時會紅少少,但總體上兩性嘅毛好少可有明顯睇得到嘅差別。不過毛色可以顯示隻狼嘅年紀-年紀愈大嘅狼愈係會喺尾嘅最尾端、鼻、同額頭呢啲地方有白毛[28]

季節毛[編輯]

狼嘅毛會隨季節而有所變化。狼喺冬天嗰陣會生出又密又蓬鬆嘅毛,下層絨毛短而護毛長[12];狼嘅冬天毛皮禦寒能力相當勁(勁過狗毛)而且防冰,喺受到唞氣出嘅水蒸氣嗰時唔會有結喺上面,北半球極北地區嘅狼就算身處喺攝氏零下 40 度(華氏零下 40 度)低溫嘅空曠地方當中,都有能力靠將身體圈埋一舊(用後髀掂住口鼻,同用條尾𢫏住塊面)嚟保持體溫同舒服噉存活。相比之下,暖啲嘅地區嘅狼因為唔需要噉勁嘅禦寒能力,所以啲毛會薄啲散啲[16]。狼嘅下層絨毛同護毛多數都係喺春天到嘅時候甩落嚟,到咗秋天先至生返出嚟[16],值得一提嘅係,啲出緊奶嘅狼乸會保留冬天毛保留得零舍耐,不過佢哋𢆡頭嗰帶嘅毛都仲會係噉咦甩啲落嚟[16]

適應能力[編輯]

印度喜馬偕爾邦一隻企喺雪地上嘅狼;狼特別擅長喺有冰雪嘅地方生存。

分佈[編輯]

狼今時今日嘅分佈經已遠遠冇古時噉廣:本嚟狼遍及近乎成個歐亞大陸同近乎成個北美洲嘅,但後嚟人類出於嫌狼會獵食牲畜同埋攻擊人類,而對狼進行捕獵,最後搞到狼嘅分佈範圍縮細成原本嘅三分之一;到咗家吓,狼喺西歐好多地區、墨西哥、同埋美國好多地區嗰度經已絕咗種,要喺野外同遠離人煙嘅地方先至會搵到-好似係加拿大亞拉斯加、同美國北部等嘅地方,又或者歐亞大陸北緯 12 度至 75 度嘅地方[29]

棲息地[編輯]

狼嘅生境好廣泛,適應能力好強:佢哋能夠住喺海平面噉高以至離海面 3,000 米(9,800 呎)嘅地方;對狼嚟講,最緊要嘅係有動物可以俾佢哋獵食、有雪、牲畜少、同埋少人類活動;衹要有呢啲條件,狼可以喺好多地形生存繁衍-例如係森林同內陸濕地,又或者包括凍原在內嘅草原地帶,以至牧地沙漠、同佈滿岩石嘅高山等嘅地方都可以有狼嘅蹤影。喺凍嘅地方,狼有能力減少佢哋身體向皮膚嘅血流嚟保存體溫,而且佢哋腳嘅肉墊有獨立於身體第啲部位嘅保溫系統,喺掂到冰同雪嗰時保持一定溫度,令到腳同髀唔會凍結[24][29]

喺亞拉斯加影到嘅一隻狼;佢擔住一隻馴鹿嘅髀。

飲食[編輯]

同多數羣體打獵嘅陸上哺乳類一樣,狼最主要係獵食一啲食草嘅大型哺乳類,好似係駝鹿美洲野牛等嘅動物都係狼常見嘅獵食對象。狼所獵食嘅食草動物通常大隻到身體質量同成個狼羣嘅成員嘅總身體質量相約-捉到一兩隻經已夠餵飽嗮成個狼羣[30][31];狼亦都進化到好擅長獵食呢啲動物,一個狼羣能夠輕易噉殺死一隻成 500 公斤(1,100 磅)重嘅駝鹿[32],喺食完一餐之後可以喺幾個鐘頭之內消化嗮所食嘅嘢,胃口大到可以一日食幾餐,食走個生態系統入面大量嘅肉[33]。食完之後,佢哋身體會將食到嘅脂肪儲喺皮膚下面、心臟周圍、腸臟周圍、、同骨髓嗰度,而呢啲脂肪對於過冬嚟講有用[34]

體能[編輯]

狼跑得相當快,而且耐力又好:喺行路嗰陣,狼通常會用大步跑,並且喺跑嗰時將要行前嗰隻腳擺喺跟尾嗰隻腳嘅正前方,而佢哋可以用呢個方法一路以時速 8 至 9 公里(5.0 - 5.6 哩每小時[35]移動,係噉行成幾個鐘頭噉耐。喺空曠嘅地方(冇積雪等嘅嘢阻住),一隻狼可以話噉快就加速到去時速 50 至 60 公里(31 - 37 哩每小時)。佢哋一吓可以跳到 5 米嘅距離,而且能夠維持高度奔跑最少 20 分鐘[36]

行為[編輯]

社交[編輯]

覓食[編輯]

合作[編輯]

競爭[編輯]

繁殖[編輯]

帶病[編輯]

病毒性疾病[編輯]

細菌性疾病[編輯]

寄生蟲[編輯]

生物分類[編輯]

群體結構[編輯]

進化史[編輯]

混種[編輯]

同人類嘅相處[編輯]

文化影響[編輯]

做人名[編輯]

民間傳說[編輯]

文學描述[編輯]

做紋章[編輯]

人狼衝突[編輯]

獵食牲畜[編輯]

狼對狗[編輯]

狼對人[編輯]

人類獵狼[編輯]

人狼合作[編輯]

保育[編輯]

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

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  33. Mech, L. David (1981). The Wolf: The Ecology and Behaviour of an Endangered Species. University of Minnesota Press. p. 172.
  34. Mech, L. David; Boitani, Luigi, eds. (2003). Wolves: Behaviour, Ecology and Conservation. University of Chicago Press. p. 201.
  35. Mech, L. David; Boitani, Luigi, eds. (2003). Wolves: Behaviour, Ecology and Conservation. University of Chicago Press. p. 32
  36. Nowak, Ronald M. & Paradiso, John L. (1983). Walker's Mammals of the World (4th ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 953.

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