恐狼

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
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Wikipedia:點樣睇生物分類框How to read a taxobox
恐狼
Dire Wolf.jpg
瀕危指標
Prehistoric
物種分類
動物界 Animalia
脊索動物門 Chordata
哺乳綱 Mammalia
食肉目 Carnivora
犬科 Canidae
犬屬 Canis
恐狼 C. dirus
二元學名
Canis dirus
Leidy, 1858

恐狼學名Canis dirus)係犬屬一個已絕種物種,係更新世北美洲裏面非常普遍嘅食肉動物。雖然佢哋同灰狼有啲似樣,但唔係任何現存物種嘅直系祖先,不過恐狼同灰狼都係喺北美洲一齊生存咗大約十萬年。大約喺一萬年前,恐狼同其他大部份嘅北美洲大型動物一齊絕種。

恐狼嘅第一個標本係由Francis A. Linck響1854年,沿住美國俄亥俄河印第安納州埃文斯維爾鴿子河河口度發現,而大部份嘅化石就響加州拉布雷亞瀝青坑發現。

特徵[編輯]

恐狼比灰狼大啲啲,平均約有1.5米長及50公斤重。[1]恐狼嘅腳喺比例上比灰狼嘅短同強壯,可見恐狼並唔擅於奔跑,因而有可能係食腐肉或者以捕獵較大型同笨重嘅獵物為生。

同灰狼相比,恐狼嘅頭又大又闊,腦蓋較細。恐狼嘅較巨大,喺冠上有大量嘅磨損痕跡,故此好多古生物學家認為恐狼係用牙嚟咬碎骨頭。恐狼嘅上亦發現有好返晒或好返啲嘅傷痕,呢啲傷痕同現今嘅喺捕獵大型獵物(例如野牛)時所造成嘅傷痕好相似,所以亦有人認為佢哋會獵殺大型嘅獵物。

演化同絕種[編輯]

犬屬動物嘅化石紀錄顯示佢哋係喺9百萬至1千萬年前嘅中新世晚期,由北美洲細小嘅Leptocyon沿灰狐狐狸嘅分支演化出來。犬屬後來喺8百萬年前擴散至歐洲亞洲,並成為而家嘅胡狼、狐狸同嘅祖先。直至3百萬至5百萬年前,犬屬動物擴散至非洲南美洲。喺3百萬年前巴拿馬地峽嘅形成,促使佢哋闖入南美洲嘅旅程。

跟住嗰9百萬年,狼喺北美洲進行大規模嘅發展同多樣化,直至更新世中期(80萬年前),Canis ambrusteri喺南北美洲出現同分佈。後嚟佢哋喺北美洲消失,但有可能喺南美洲延續成為恐狼嘅祖先。不過亦有一啲證據顯示恐狼係由其他較細隻嘅南美洲狼演化而嚟。

更新世晚期(30萬年前),灰狼白令陸橋抵達北美洲。10萬年前,恐狼亦嘅北美洲出現。

一萬六千年前(冰河時期末),人類抵達北美洲,大部份嘅大型哺乳動物開始消失。恐狼由於冇咗主要獵物,而且跑得比其他犬屬嘅物種(如灰狼及紅狼)慢,捉唔到較靈活嘅獵物,開始焗住要食腐肉。直至一萬年前,大型哺乳動物同恐狼都絕種。不過喺阿肯色州亦有發現一啲化石,證明恐狼可能喺4000年前仍有一啲殘餘份子喺歐薩克山脈度生活。

化石紀錄[編輯]

拉布雷亞瀝青坑發現過千隻嘅恐狼頭顱骨

拉布雷亞瀝青坑裏面,恐狼嘅數目非常之多,總數超過3600隻,比所有其他嘅哺乳動物更多。由此可見,恐狼可能好似而家嘅或者咁群體獵食,並且得知當時物種喺接近絕種時所承受嘅壓力。

埃文斯維爾恐狼[編輯]

喺1854年夏天,當俄亥俄河嘅水位較低時,響美國印第安納州埃文斯維爾發現到恐狼嘅模式標本。呢個標本係一個化石化嘅顎骨,由Joseph Granville Norwood博士響Francis A. Linck度搵到嘅。佢將呢個標本交畀約瑟夫·萊迪(Joseph Leidy)研究,萊迪確定呢個標本屬於嘅一個已絕種物種,喺1858年發表嘅文獻中,萊迪將呢個標本命名為恐狼。[2]

Norwood博士喺交畀約瑟夫·萊迪恐狼標本嘅信中提及另有一個標本已交返Linck度,但Linck喺1854年已經死咗,故此未能確定。呢封信同恐狼嘅模式標本現時存放喺費城自然科學院裏面。

參考[編輯]

  1. "Dire Wolf". 喺20-12-2007搵到.  檢查日期值喺: |access-date= (詳情)
  2. Clark Kimberling (1996). "David Dale Owen and Joseph Granville Norwood: Pioneer Geologists in Indiana and Illinois". Indiana Magazine of History (用英文寫). Indiana University. 62: 2–25. 

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    The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    ISBN isbn

    International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    ISSN issn

    International Standard Serial Number (print); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    eISSN eissn

    International Standard Serial Number (online); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    jfm code jfm

    Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    JSTOR jstor

    JSTOR identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    LCCN lccn

    Library of Congress Control Number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    MR mr

    Mathematical Reviews identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    OCLC oclc

    Online Computer Library Center number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    OL ol

    Open Library identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    OSTI osti

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    PMC pmc

    PubMed Center article number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    PMID pmid

    PubMed Unique Identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    RFC rfc

    Request for Comments number

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    數字 可選
    SSRN ssrn

    Social Science Research Network

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Zbl zbl

    Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    id id

    A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    URL access level url-access

    Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Archive URL archive-urlarchiveurl

    The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Archive date archive-datearchivedate

    Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    URL access date access-dateaccessdate

    The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Registration registration

    If the reference requires registration, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Subscription subscription

    If the reference requires a subscription, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Lay URL lay-urllayurl

    URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'

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    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Lay source lay-sourcelaysource

    Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

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    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Lay date lay-datelaydate

    Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    日子 可選
    Quote quote

    Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    內容 可選
    Postscript postscript

    The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined; to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

    預設
    .
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Ref ref

    An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates

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    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Separator separator

    The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as   to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

    預設
    .
    範例
    自動值
    可選
    Content deliverer (i.e. Database) via

    Provider of the article (not the publisher), usually an aggregator of journal articles or a repository

    預設
    範例
    JSTOR, Project MUSE, Elsevier Science Direct
    自動值
    字串 建議
    Bibcode access level bibcode-access

    If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    DOI access level doi-access

    If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    HDL access level hdl-access

    If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    Jstor access level jstor-access

    If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    OpenLibrary access level ol-access

    If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選
    HDL access level osti-access

    If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

    預設
    範例
    自動值
    字串 可選

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