想像

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
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一幅畫描繪一個坐喺度發緊白日夢嘅男人。

想像粵拼:soeng2 zoeng6英文imagination)係認知過程嘅一種,指唔靠感官(包括視覺聽覺等)輸入喺自己個入面整啲影像、意念、同感覺出嚟嘅能力[1],包括咗好多人研究嘅心像(mental imagery;指個人喺冇收到任何實際嘅視覺刺激之下,喺心入面建構一個影像出嚟嘅過程)。想像有俾人描述為「喺心入面令經驗成形」嘅現象-想像幫個人由自己嘅記憶嗰度重造過去嘅經驗或者組合將來可能會有嘅經驗出嚟,所以係人類運用知識解難同學習一個走唔甩嘅基本過程[2][3][4][5][6][7]

想像可以細分做「由上至下」(top-down)嘅自主性想像同埋「由下至上」(bottom-up)嘅非自主性想像:前者包括咗個人有意識噉做嘅發白日夢呀噉,主要由個前額葉皮層(prefrontal cortex)掌控;而後者係指一啲冇法子自主噉控制嘅想像過程,好似瞓覺嗰陣嘅發夢過程就係一個例子。

人類日常生活當中喺做作故仔同講故仔等嘅嘢嗰陣時會訓練自己嘅想像力[8]。細路仔好多時喺玩遊戲嗰陣會作故仔,鍛鍊自己嘅想像力,例如係用角色扮演嘅方法嚟扮一啲佢哋想像中嘅角色,喺玩遊戲嗰陣扮到好似佢哋所想像嘅嘢係現實噉嘅樣[9]

概念史[編輯]

「心眼」(mind's eye;拉丁文mentis oculi)嘅概念早喺公元前 1 世紀經已由古羅馬哲學家西塞羅(Cicero)提出過。喺佢嘅著作入面,西塞羅有傾過明喻應該點用嘅問題[10],佢觀察到當時羅馬人用嘅某啲明喻手法太過夾硬嚟,並且主張啲人喺用明喻手法嗰陣應該用啲人親眼見過、容易用「心眼」想像出嚟嘅嘢做比喻[11]

「心眼」第一次喺英文入面出現係喺 1387 年英國作家喬叟(Chaucer)所作嘅故仔《The Man of Law's Tale》裏面,喺呢個故仔入面有一個盲佬,而喬叟佢描寫話呢個盲佬「淨係有得用佢對心眼睇嘢」,而「呢對心眼係所有人變盲之後用嚟睇嘢嗰對」[12]

功能[編輯]

"Imagination ... is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world." (「想像力... 緊要過知識。知識係有限嘅,(而)想像力包含嗮成個世界。」)

Albert Einstein (愛因斯坦

想像喺人類嘅生活當中扮演咗好多重要嘅角色[13]

  • 喺日常生活當中,人類成日要運用想像力嚟去喺心入面建構一啲未經歷過嘅體驗。人類記憶能夠(唔完美噉)喺心入面重組過去學過嘅資訊,但同時佢哋又曉將過去學到嘅資訊重組,用嚟想像未來會發生嘅事。例:A 君同 B 君從來未見過面,C 君識 A 君又識 B 君,諗住介紹佢哋兩個俾對方識,佢憑佢對 A 君同 B 君嘅性格嘅認識,想像呢兩個人撞到會發生乜嘢事,覺得佢哋夾得埋所以想介紹佢哋俾對方識。
  • 想像力令到人類識得作故仔:喺創作當中,好似科幻奇幻等嘅文學體裁會描述一啲現實世界冇可能發生嘅事,會要求讀者暫停懷疑(suspend disbelief)-暫時唔好懷疑自己所讀到嘅嘢,唔好駁故[14];喺睇故仔嘅過程裏面,讀者仲需要由睇到嘅文字當中想像個故仔入面嘅世界,所以要用到自己嘅想像力-喺一點上,就算係一啲真實嘅體裁都係一樣。
  • 想像力喺科學上都不可或缺。喺科學研究上,重大嘅發現往往都係源於科學家(憑住已有嘅知識)想像出一啲前所未有嘅假說理論先至做得成嘅[15]-正如愛因斯坦所講,科學家唔可以淨係靠背誦已有嘅知識嚟去做新嘅發現。
  • 想像嘅過程可以係自主嘅(例如係發白日夢噉),又可以係不自主嘅(例如係發夢噉)。

[編輯]

  1. Szczelkun, S. (2018). SENSE THINK ACT: a collection of exercises to experience total human ability (Vol. 1). Stefan Szczelkun.
  2. Norman 2000 pp. 1-2.
  3. Brian Sutton-Smith 1988, p. 22.
  4. Archibald MacLeish 1970, p. 887.
  5. Kieran Egan 1992, pp. 50.
  6. Byrne, Ruth (2007). The Rational Imagination: How People Create Alternatives to Reality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 38.
  7. Janowski, Dr Monica; Ingold, Professor Tim (2012-09-01). Imagining Landscapes: Past, Present and Future. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  8. Northrop Frye 1963, p. 49.
  9. Laurence Goldman (1998). Child's play: myth, mimesis and make-believe. Oxford New York: Berg Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85973-918-1. Basically what this means is that the children use their make-believe situation and act as if what they are acting out is from a reality that already exists even though they have made it up.imagination comes after story created.
  10. Cicero, De Oratore, Liber III: XLI: 163.
  11. J.S. (trans. and ed.), Cicero on Oratory and Orators, Harper & Brothers, (New York), 1875: Book III, C.XLI, p.239.
  12. The Man of Laws Tale, lines 550-553.
  13. Viereck, George Sylvester (October 26, 1929). "What life means to Einstein: an interview". The Saturday Evening Post.
  14. suspend disbelief.
  15. Why science needs imagination and beauty.