# 假說

## 驗證

• 實驗（experiment）：指緊一啲用嚟驗證某啲假說、牽涉到操控（manipulate）某啲變數嘅程序；响做實驗嗰陣，研究會操控自變數（IV）－即係用人工嘅方法改變自變數嘅數值，再睇吓噉樣做會點樣影響到應變數（DV）嘅數值。舉個例說明，例如係喺驗證正話提到嘅時間膨脹假說嗰陣，研究者可以噉做實驗－佢哋擺個原子鐘喺架好勁嘅火箭裏面，開大架火箭嘅引擎，令架火箭飛得好快（有返咁上下接近光速），飛完一輪之後研究者再攞架火箭裏面嗰個原子鐘，攞個鐘嚟同一個由始至終都喺地球表面唔郁嘅原子鐘比較吓，睇吓以接近光速飛過嘅原子鐘係咪真係會行得慢咗。喺成個實驗入面，速度就係一個自變數（俾研究者人工噉操控咗嘅變數），而個原子鐘所量度嘅過咗幾耐時間就係一個應變數（研究者淨係量度咗呢個變數，冇直接噉操控佢數值）[2][3]實驗室（laboratory）泛指一間專門攞嚟做實驗用嘅房，一般都會擺嗮啲專係攞嚟做實驗用嘅架生，而且因為用嘅架生個個科學領域都唔同，所以會有分化學實驗室生物學實驗室或者心理學實驗室呢類再專門啲嘅實驗室[4]
• 觀察（observation）：指緊一啲用嚟驗證某啲假說、但牽涉到操控任何變數嘅程序；响做觀察嗰陣，研究者會搵方法量度啲變數嘅數值，再睇吓啲變數之間嘅關係係咪同假說所講嘅一致，不過佢哋唔會特登去郁手改變任何一個變數嘅數值；例如係經濟學家驗證一啲描述「貨品價錢受乜嘢因素影響」嘅假說嗰陣，佢哋好難話直接控制（例如）市場上嗰啲商品嘅價錢，但佢哋可以隨機（randomly）噉幾樣商品出嚟睇，計吓統計分析睇吓價錢係咪真係同（佢哋心目中會影響價錢嘅）嗰啲因素有明顯嘅相關，係嘅話就可以話啲數據撐咗佢哋心目中嘅假說，而喺成個過程入面，啲經濟學家冇操控任何變數，只係量度咗啲變數嘅數值，所以佢哋做緊嘅係個觀察，唔係實驗。順帶一提，同自然科學比起上嚟，社會科學零舍常會用觀察[5][6]

## 攷

1. Hilborn, Ray; Mangel, Marc (1997). The ecological detective: confronting models with data. Princeton University Press. p. 24.
2. Cooperstock, F. I. (2009). General relativistic dynamics: extending Einstein's legacy throughout the universe. Singapore: World Scientific.
3. Griffith, W. T. (2001). The physics of everyday phenomena: a conceptual introduction to physics, 3rd Ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Page 3-4.
4. DiBerardinis, L. J., Baum, J. S., First, M. W., Gatwood, G. T., & Seth, A. K. (2013). Guidelines for laboratory design: health, safety, and environmental considerations. John Wiley & Sons.
5. Hart, C. L., Taylor, M. D., Smith, G. D., Whalley, L. J., Starr, J. M., Hole, D. J., ... & Deary, I. J. (2004). Childhood IQ and cardiovascular disease in adulthood: prospective observational study linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies. Social science & medicine, 59(10), 2131-2138.
6. McIllmurray, M. B., Thomas, C., Francis, B., Morris, S., Soothill, K., & Al‐Hamad, A. (2001). The psychosocial needs of cancer patients: findings from an observational study. European journal of cancer care, 10(4), 261-269.