自然科學

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
自然科學嘗試研究大自然嘅嘢:由左上到右下係 DNA星雲火山物體郁動同自然環境入面嘅動物

自然科學zi6 jin4 fo1 hok6英文natural science)泛指用科學方法嚟研究大自然嘅領域,即係會用實驗觀察等嘅做法嚟描述、預測同埋解釋大自然入面嘅各種現象。自然科學可以按「研究大自然嘅邊一忽」嚟再細分做做好多範[1]

定位[編輯]

睇埋:科學同埋自然

自然科學同第啲科學-例如係心靈科學或者社會科學呀噉-領域一樣,會跟足科學方法(scientific method)嚟去研究大自然(廣義上包嗮所有唔係人造嘅嘢[2])。自然科學研究會:

  1. 根據手上已知係真嘅事實,諗一啲理論出嚟(「基於我哋經已觀察到嘅呢啲現象,我推測啲現象背後嘅法則係噉噉噉,令研究緊嗰樣嘢有噉嘅行為」),呢啲理論最理想係用數學模型嘅方式表達嘅;
  2. 跟手就靠邏輯性嘅思考,去諗吓呢柞理論會做點樣嘅預測(「如果我提倡嘅呢個理論係真確嘅,理應會...」);
  3. 然後就做實驗觀察嚟攞數據,驗證吓個理論嘅預測係咪真確(「如果我呢個理論係真確,呢個實驗理應會得出某個某個結果,而個實際嘅實驗結果係...」);
  4. 如果數據顯示,個理論係做唔到準確嘅預測嘅話,就要一係根據攞到嘅數據睇吓個理論要點改先可以令佢做到準確啲嘅預測,一係就要諗新理論取代舊理論[3]

上述嘅過程會係噉不斷重複,直至手上嘅理論做得到完全準確嘅預測為止-於是乎自然科學就有持續嘅發展,做到愈嚟愈準確嘅預測。到咗現代,自然科學經已有龐大嘅理論體系,有多個理論解釋各種嘅自然現象,而且自然科學家仲會不斷噉去搵新嘅現象嚟研究,睇吓呢啲理論能唔能夠解釋新現象,又或者使唔使諗新嘅理論[4][5][6]

分科[編輯]

睇埋:科學分枝

自然科學可以再細分做好多範,包括咗:

物理科學[編輯]

內文:物理科學

物理科學(physical science):研究啲原子或者係星球呢類冇生命嘅嘢。

  • 物理學(physics):研究宇宙嘅基本組成要素,好似係物質、物質喺時間空間入面嘅運動、以及好似係能量或者呢啲概念都係物理學嘅研究題目-細至構成物質嘅基本粒子,大至成個宇宙,都係物理學嘅研究範圍;物理學會透過分析同發現宇宙最基本嘅定律(物理定律)嚟去了解宇宙係點樣運作嘅,而且因為宇宙入面嘅嘢幾乎冚唪唥都會受制於呢柞定律,物理學可以話係自然科學之中最基本(fundamental),覆蓋面最廣嘅[7][8]
  • 化學(chemistry):研究物質同物質嘅特性,尤其係物質可以點樣變化;化學嘅範疇包括咗研究化學元素(原子嘅唔同款)以及係化合物(由若干隻元素結合而成嘅物質)嘅組成、結構同特性;除此之外,化學家仲成日研究物質點樣做化學反應-化學反應簡單講就係兩款或者以上嘅物質互動,分別噉變成第啲款嘅物質,仲有係化學反應發生嗰陣嘅能量變化(例如有啲化學反應發生嗰陣會釋放熱)等嘅問題[9][10]
  • 地球科學(earth science):專門研究地球嘅環境,涵括咗地質學(研究地球嘅岩石圈)、海洋學(研究)同氣象學(研究天氣氣候等)等嘅領域;呢啲研究好多時會用到物理學同化學上嘅知識,例如係研究地球嘅岩石圈嘅地質學就會試圖了解地殼嘅化學成份同埋由地核放出嚟嘅熱力點樣影響呢啲成份-前會涉及化學,而後者會涉及熱能壓力呢啲概念(物理學嘅範疇)[11][12]
  • 天文學(astronomy):研究天體,包括恆星行星衞星彗星星系呀噉;天文學會運用數學、物理學同化學嚟解釋宇宙入面唔同嘅天體點運作,簡單嘅例子包括咗用物理學上有關重力嘅概念同理論嚟分析啲行星點樣圍住恆星公轉(可以睇吓天體物理學[13][14]

生命科學[編輯]

內文:生命科學

生命科學(life science):研究細菌植物等有生命嘅嘢。

... 呀噉。

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. Lagemaat, Richard van de (2006). Theory of Knowledge for the IB Diploma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Ducarme, Frédéric; Couvet, Denis (2020). "What does 'nature' mean?". Palgrave Communications. Springer Nature. 6 (14).
  3. Godfrey-Smith 2003, Chapter 14: "Bayesianism and Modern Theories of Evidence".
  4. Cropper, W. H. (2004). Great Physicists: The Life and Times of Leading Physicists from Galileo to Hawking. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-983208-8.
  5. Bunge, M. (1973). Philosophy of physics (p. 122). Dordrecht: Reidel.
  6. Sklar, L. (1992). Philosophy of physics. Dimensions of Philosophy S.
  7. "Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves." Young & Freedman 2014, p. 1
  8. Lederman, L. M. (1984). The value of fundamental science. Scientific American, 251(5), 40-47.
  9. Brown, Theodore L.; LeMay, Jr., H. Eugene; Bursten, Bruce E.; Murphey, Catherine J.; Woodward, Patrick M.; Stoltzfus, Matthew W.; Lufaso, Michael W. (2018). "Introduction: Matter, energy, and measurement". Chemistry: The Central Science (14th ed.). New York: Pearson. pp. 46–85.
  10. "Chemistry Is Everywhere". American Chemical Society.
  11. What Is Earth Science?.
  12. Allaby M., 2008. Dictionary of Earth Sciences, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-921194-4.
  13. Unsöld, A.; Baschek, B. (2001). The New Cosmos: An Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics. Springer.
  14. Carroll, B. W., & Ostlie, D. A. (2017). An introduction to modern astrophysics. Cambridge University Press.
  15. Trifonov, Edward N. (2012). "Definition of Life: Navigation through Uncertainties". Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics. Adenine Press. 29 (4): 647–50.
  16. "Molecular Biology". britannica.com.
  17. Griffiths, Anthony J.F.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Suzuki, David T.; Lewontin, Richard C.; Gelbart, William M., eds. (2000). "Genetics and the Organism: Introduction". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.
  18. Hartl, D, Jones, E (2005). Genetics: Analysis of Genes and Genomes (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.
  19. Mogilner, A., Wollman, R., & Marshall, W. F. (2006). Quantitative modeling in cell biology: what is it good for?. Developmental cell, 11(3), 279-287.
  20. Bear, MF; Connors, BW; Paradiso, MA (2007). "Ch. 2". Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  21. Bovet, É., Kraus, C., Panese, F., Pidoux, V., & Stücklin, N. (2013). Neuroscience examined by the clinical and the social science. Revue d'anthropologie des connaissances, 7(3), a-n.
  22. Hatcher, Bruce Gordon (1990). "Coral reef primary productivity. A hierarchy of pattern and process". Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 5 (5): 149-155.
  23. Chapin, F. Stuart; Pamela A. Matson; Harold A. Mooney (2002). Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. New York: Springer. p. 10.

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