世界創建

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢
虛構大陸阿里迪亞(Aredia)嘅地圖;作者想像出一笪虛構嘅地方,包括笪地方嘅地理特徵以至文化歷史呀噉。

世界創建粵拼sai3 gaai3 cong3 gin3英文world building)係創意寫作上嘅一個概念,指一個故仔嘅創作者創造一個用嚟做個故仔舞台虛構世界嘅過程。世界創建呢家嘢喺好似科幻奇幻幻想性體裁當中零舍重要,因為呢啲文類好興將啲角色置身喺架空世界當中,透過故仔個虛構世界嘅奇異性,引起讀者觀眾嘅興趣[1][2]

响最基本上,世界創建可以用兩種方式做:

  • 直接:有好多奇幻作者都會幫自己嘅奇幻小說嘅虛構世界畫地圖,仲索性將啲地圖附帶埋喺本小說入面俾讀者可以攞嚟睇,例如《魔戒》嘅作者托爾金就出咗名幫佢啲長篇小說入面嘅虛構世界(中土世界;Middle-earth)畫地圖,仲附帶埋喺本小說裏面[3]
  • 隱晦:想像有個奇幻故仔,講主角同佢嘅同伴出發去打低魔王情節其中一段講佢哋去到間酒吧,俾魔王嘅手下包圍,但喺呢個時候,有一班高扁同一班精靈因為兩族之間嘅世仇喺間酒吧度開片,主角同佢嘅同伴趁混亂走佬-呢件事對情節進展有用,同時又展示咗有關故仔虛構世界嘅資訊-「高扁族同精靈族兩族唔友好」呢樣資訊[4]。可以睇埋 show, don't tell

世界創建係創意寫作不可或缺嘅一環。作故仔嘅人要思考個虛構世界嘅物理法則自然環境文化歷史以至係特色地點呀噉。做得好嘅世界創建往往會令讀者同觀眾沉醉同嚮往個虛構世界,例如中土世界同霍格華茲魔法學校等嘅著名虛構地點喺廿一世紀初嘅大眾文化當中都相當有影響力,成日引起擁躉為呢啲世界創造模型同人小說等嘅文化產物[5][6]

定位[編輯]

睇埋:背景設定同埋推想型故仔

世界創建泛指建立一個虛構世界,通常係攞嚟做一個故仔舞台

對於世界創建嘅重要性,廿世紀意大利作家文學評論家烏伯圖·艾高(Umberto Eco)就噉講[7]

英文翻譯:"It is necessary to create constraints, in order to invent freely. In poetry the constraint can be imposed by meter, foot, rhyme, by what has been called the "verse according to the ear."... In fiction, the surrounding world provides the constraint. This has nothing to do with realism... A completely unreal world can be constructed, in which asses fly and princesses are restored to life by a kiss; but that world, purely possible and unrealistic, must exist according to structures defined at the outset (we have to know whether it is a world where a princess can be restored to life only by the kiss of a prince, or also by that of a witch, and whether the princess's kiss transforms only frogs into princes or also, for example, armadillos)."

粵文翻譯:創造約束(指對「故仔世界有啲乜嘢事係有可能」嘅限制)對於自在創作嚟講係必要嘅。喺入面,約束可以由韻律音步節奏施加,可以由所謂嘅「耳仔聽到嘅詩歌」施加。喺虛構故仔入面,故仔周圍嘅世界提供咗約束。呢一點同真實性無關... 一個完全唔真實嘅世界(例如一個有魔法嘅世界)可以被(作者)建構,喺呢個世界裏面曉飛而且公主可以靠俾人惜一啖起死回生;但嗰個純粹有可能同唔真實嘅世界一定要根據故仔初頭定義好嘅結構存在(我哋需要知呢個世界係咪一個「王子惜一啖可以令公主起死回生」嘅世界,定女巫惜一啖能唔能夠令公主起死回生,同埋公主惜一啖係咪淨係會令青蛙變王子,定係又會令例如犰狳都變王子)。

元素[編輯]

做世界創建要諗到個虛構世界嘅[8][9]

物理法則[編輯]

睇埋:魔法系統

物理法則:尤其常見於興講魔法奇幻;例如奇幻界就有所謂嘅魔法系統(magic system)概念,一個魔法系統係指故仔涉及魔法元素嘅奇幻作品當中對「魔法點運作」嘅描述,即係「啲魔法做到啲咩效果」、「啲魔法係邊啲人用到」以及「啲魔法嘅力量有咩限制」等問題嘅答案,令個故仔有理可循[10]-好似係 2000 年代嘅奇幻名作《哈利波特》(Harry Potter)就花咗唔少篇幅講主角魔法學校學魔法,呢啲情節得意之餘,仲會間接話俾讀者觀眾知「哈利波特世界裏面嘅魔法係點運作嘅」,而打後情節當中發生嘅事唔會同呢啲法則有所矛盾[11]

自然環境[編輯]

自然環境:作者要大致上知個世界嘅自然環境係點-例如「暨列係一笪飽受猩紅色瘟疫摧殘嘅地方,周圍都係死於瘟疫嘅人嘅屍體,而且啲水體嚴重受污染變成猩紅噉色」;跟住好多時仲要詳細噉描繪個世界嘅地理特性-例如「暨列位於笪大陸嘅最東南面,有呢條呢條河,中間有個好大嘅,個湖嘅名叫...」,甚至有好多作者會索性畫埋幅地圖出嚟[12]

文化[編輯]

文化:絕大多數嘅虛構世界都會有文明同某啲型式-未必係由人類建立-嘅社會;呢啲社會會有佢哋嘅語言文字(睇埋人造語言)、建築風格以至法律等嘅文化產物。

霍格華茲魔法學校嘅比例模型;做得好嘅世界創建能夠造出讀者嚮往嘅虛構世界,令個故仔更加引人入勝。

歷史[編輯]

概念史[編輯]

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. Mark J.P. Wolf (2014). Building Imaginary Worlds: The Theory and History of Subcreation. Routledge.
  2. Hamilton, John (2009). You Write It: Science Fiction. ABDO. pp. 8-9.
  3. Hammond, Wayne G.; Anderson, Douglas A. (1993). J.R.R. Tolkien: A Descriptive Bibliography. St. Paul's Bibliographies.
  4. Fantasy World Building: How to World Build for Your Fantasy Novel.
  5. Wolf, Mark J.P. (27 September 2017). "World Design". The Routledge Companion to Imaginary Worlds. Taylor & Francis. p. 103.
  6. Paterson, Eddie; Simpson-Williams, Timothy; Cordner, Will (October 31, 2019). Once Upon a Pixel: Storytelling and Worldbuilding in Video Games. CRC Press.
  7. Eco, U. (1980). The Name of the Rose. postscript.
  8. Hergenrader, Trent (October 18, 2018). Collaborative Worldbuilding for Writers and Gamers. Bloomsbury Publishing.
  9. Lawrence, Kelly (August 29, 2014). Compass Points - Building Your Story: A Guide to Structure and Plot. John Hunt Publishing.
  10. How to Create a Magic System in Six Simple Steps.
  11. Highfield, Roger (2002). The Science of Harry Potter: How magic really works. New York: Viking.
  12. What Happens In Elden Ring? The Game's Story, Part 3: Caelid.

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