投入感

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢
一個玩緊 VR 嘅人嘗試用手掂自己見到嗰啲虛擬物體-好似當咗啲物體係真嘅噉。

投入感粵拼tau4 jap6 gam2英文immersion)係人機互動(HCI)同相關領域上嘅一個概念。喺最基本上,投入感係指一個人有幾覺得自己眼前嘅虛擬世界真實。如果話一個人高度投入,意思即係話佢當正嗰個世界係真嘅,而且仲會覺得自己好似真係身處喺個世界裏面噉[1][2]

投入感呢個概念常用於虛擬實境(VR)同電子遊戲等嘅媒體當中:呢啲媒體都會嘗試向用家呈現一個虛擬世界,而齋靠觀察用家嘅行為經已可知,呢啲媒體會令用家嘅行為變到彷彿好似佢哋當咗啲虛擬物體係真嘅噉-佢哋會嘗試搵手掂自己見到嗰啲虛擬物體,而且會對啲虛擬物體有情緒反應,例如畏高嘅人响虛擬實境裏面見到自己身處高嘅地方會或多或少噉覺得[3]。噉講即係話啲用家一定程度上將感知到嘅虛擬世界當咗係真嘅,而用家「有幾當正個虛擬世界係真」就反映佢有幾投入[4][5]

實證研究表明咗,投入會引起用家出現一連串心理生理上嘅變化,例如如果一個玩緊虛擬實境遊戲嘅人好投入,佢會變到傾向完全將自己嘅注意力集中嗮落去個虛擬世界嗰度,而且好多時仲會好鍾意隻遊戲,覺得隻遊戲令自己好過癮。因為噉,「令用家有投入感」就成為咗廿一世紀初嘅虛擬實境同電子遊戲設計上最想追求嘅目標之一[1][6]

定義[編輯]

「投入一個虛擬世界」嘅感覺俾好多人話好似俾嗰個虛擬世界包圍住噉。
睇埋:人機互動

對於「投入感」呢個詞要點定義人機互動(HCI)研究者到咗廿一世紀初都仲有喺度詏緊[7][8]。而以下係一個比較多人引用嘅講法[9]

原版英文:"Immersion is a metaphorical term derived from the physical experience of being submerged in water. We seek the same feeling from a psychologically immersive experience that we do from a plunge in the ocean or swimming pool: the sensation of being surrounded by a completely other reality, as different as water is from air, that takes over all of our attention, our whole perceptual apparatus."

粵文翻譯:「投入感」(呢個詞)係一個暗喻性嘅詞,嚟自被浸喺入面嘅物理體驗。我哋想由一段心理上有投入性嘅體驗裏面,搵到同喺或者泳池一嘢跳落度一樣嘅體驗:一股完全噉俾第個現實包圍嘅感覺,(第個現實同真嘅現實)就好似水同空氣咁唔同,而呢段體驗會完全支配我哋嘅注意力,(支配)我哋成個感知功能

喺 2020 年為止,投入感嘅概念包含咗兩大部份[7][10][11]

心理特性[編輯]

睇埋:注意力同埋動機強度
  • 感知:如果話一個人完美投入,意思即係話佢嘅注意力完全集中嗮喺個投入對象嗰度,佢啲感官係「完全淨係處理同投入對象相關嘅資訊」咁滯[12];同時因為注意力係一種有限嘅資源(可以睇吓專注力相關嘅嘢),所以個人就會冇咁留意到環境入面嘅第啲嘢。要量度注意力,可以用眼動追蹤(eye tracking)同反應時間等嘅技術。
  • 情緒:情緒反映咗一個人有幾在意一樣嘢-如果一樣嘢對個人嚟講係有價值嘅(睇埋行為強化行為懲罰),噉佢就傾向會對嗰樣嘢有強烈嘅情緒反應,例如 A 君好關心 B 君,噉 B 君出咗咩事 A 君會有好情緒反應;而如果一個人好投入一個故仔(一套或者一隻電子遊戲),噉佢理應會好關心啲角色嘅命運,會(例如)喺其中一個角色死嗰陣有強烈嘅情緒反應[13]。要量度情緒,可以用皮膚電活動-尤其係皮膚電導(skin conductance)-等嘅技術。
  • 目標:如果話一個人好投入落去一隻電子遊戲嗰度,佢會好接受隻遊戲俾佢嘅目標-例如想像佢玩緊隻射擊遊戲,隻遊戲要求佢喺個虛擬世界入面打低若干個虛擬敵人,佢會好樂意跟住做;喺行為上,佢會花好多時間嚟去追求隻遊戲要佢追嘅目標[14]
呢個人打機打得好投入-佢對望實個熒幕,將注意力集中喺隻遊戲嗰度。

系統特性[編輯]

睇埋:畫質

亦都有啲研究者主張,投入感呢家嘢可以睇成由個系統(即係指隻遊戲或者套戲本身)具有嘅一樣客觀特性,例如响 2002 年就有研究者噉講[15]

原版英文:"Let's reserve the term "immersion" to stand simply for what the technology delivers from an objective point of view. The more the system delivers displays (in all sensory modalities) and tracking that preserves fidelity in relation to their equivalent real-world sensory modalities, the more that is "immersive."

粵文翻譯:我哋都係應該將「投入感」呢個詞攞嚟淨係指一啲(用緊嘅)科技客觀上能夠提供到嘅嘢。一個有投入性嘅系統愈係做到提供(所有感覺方式嘅)展示,而且保存對嗰樣展示嘅現實對應嘅準確描繪(即係真實噉描繪嗰樣展示嘅現實版本),嗰個系統就算係愈有投入性。

科技[編輯]

睇埋:遙存

投入科技(immersive technology)泛指設計嚟嘗試令用家投入一個虛擬世界嗰度嘅科技,包括咗以下呢啲嘢:

虛擬實境[編輯]

內文:虛擬實境

虛擬實境(virtual reality,縮寫 VR)泛指用電腦模擬出一個虛擬世界用家體驗。喺廿一世紀初,VR 嘅標準做法係俾用家戴住個 VR 頭罩-個頭罩會向用家對顯示個虛擬世界嘅影像,而且個罩仲內置咗感應器曉感應用家嘅郁動,所以每當用家郁嗰陣,VR 裏面嘅景物就會跟住郁,令用家覺得自己好似真係置身响個虛擬世界入面噉。因為 VR 呢種技術追求嘅就係想用家將注意力投入個虛擬世界度,所以搞 VR 技術嘅研究者都好在意用家係咪投入,將「用家嘅投入感」視為成功嘅指標之一,愈能夠令用家投入嘅 VR 就愈算係成功[16][17]

左面幅圖係 2016 年一個 VR 頭罩,而右面幅圖係 2017 年一個人戴住個 VR 頭罩體驗 VR 嘅虛擬世界。個頭罩會罩住用家對,向用家播放虛擬世界嘅影像

喺廿一世紀初,虛擬實境有相當廣泛嘅用途:

  • 軍訓同相關嘅教育:有軍事方面嘅工作者指出,俾受緊訓嘅士兵用 VR 嚟體驗打仗嗰時會體驗嘅嘢能夠向佢哋更加真實噉展示戰場係點嘅樣嘅,而只要 VR 嘅畫面做得夠真實,就會(同廿世紀嗰啲喺軍營入面做演習)做到更加迫真噉模擬現實嘅行軍打仗,更加能夠確保啲士兵真係應付到佢哋喺現實要面對嘅工作[18];事實係經已有研究者試過整 VR 嘅飛行模擬器(flight simulator;即係俾受緊訓嘅空軍軍人用 VR 模擬揸飛機[19],而且仲做到有軍人提議攞呢種模擬器嚟做認真嘅軍訓[18]
  • 心理治療上攞嚟應付恐懼症(phobia;指一個人對某樣嘢有極度嘅恐懼反應,例如畏高嘅人好驚身處响高嘅地方):研究已知,投入一個虛擬世界就會令嗰個人對虛擬世界嘅嘢有好似現實噉嘅反應,即係話理論上(例如)一個畏高嘅人响虛擬實境裏面見到自己身處高嘅地方(虛擬世界嘅嘢),應該會或多或少噉覺得驚(好似現實噉嘅反應)[20];而實證研究表明咗,一個恐懼症患者喺 VR 入面見到自己驚嘅嘢嗰陣會好似真係見到嗰樣嘢噉,有驚嘅反應,所以有心理學家就提出咗用 VR 技術嚟喺心理治療上應付恐懼症-簡單做法有重複噉俾患者喺 VR 入面感受嗰樣嘢,等佢慢慢噉習慣嗰樣嘢學識唔再驚[3][21]
  • 虛擬實境遊戲(VR game):即係用 VR 嚟玩嘅電子遊戲,例子可以睇吓 PlayStation VR [22]

視像遊戲[編輯]

一位電子競技選手喺度全神貫注打緊隻射擊遊戲
內文:視像遊戲

視像遊戲(video game,VG)係另一種好睇重投入感嘅科技。一隻視像遊戲會係個電腦程式結構大致如下:喺一隻遊戲嘅程式啟動嗰陣,個程式要初始化-設好嗮隻遊戲嘅參數嘅數值、講好嗮要用乜資源等等;初始化咗之後,個程式就要進入遊戲迴圈(game loop)-一路係噉重複行段遊戲嘅,直至遊戲玩完為止[23]

定義上,視像遊戲涉及兩樣嘢:

一隻視像遊戲一定會想玩家或多或少噉將注意力投放喺隻遊戲俾嘅輸出(即係啲畫面同埋聲效)嗰度,先至有可能引到玩家一路玩落去[24],而事實係實證嘅研究表明咗,一隻視像遊戲嘅畫質等嘅因素會影響玩家嘅投入感(例如畫質愈靚,玩家就傾向愈投入),而一般認為投入感係衡量一隻視像遊戲掂唔掂嘅其中一個最重要指標-隻遊戲愈能夠令玩家投入就算係愈掂[12]

到咗廿一世紀初,視像遊戲產業經已取得咗龐大嘅成功:截至 2018 年,全世界嘅視像遊戲總共賣咗成 1,349 億美元咁多[25]視像遊戲製作成為咗一門龐大嘅產業,涉及包括設計師製作師等嘅多種人員;同時亦都自然吸引咗好多人機互動等領域嘅研究者,一齊研究點樣令玩家打起機上嚟更加享受-而投入感就係呢啲研究嘅重要一環[26]

睇埋[編輯]

註釋[編輯]

  1. 同投入感有啲似,但比較睇重講「用家受到挑戰」呢點。

文獻[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Brown, E., & Cairns, P. (2004, April). A grounded investigation of game immersion (PDF). In CHI'04 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 1297-1300).
  2. Jennett, C., Cox, A. L., Cairns, P., Dhoparee, S., Epps, A., Tijs, T., & Walton, A. (2008). Measuring and defining the experience of immersion in games (PDF). International journal of human-computer studies, 66(9), 641-661.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Gromer, D., Reinke, M., Christner, I., & Pauli, P. (2019). Causal interactive links between presence and fear in virtual reality height exposure. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 141.
  4. Patrick, E., Cosgrove, D., Slavkovic, A., Rode, J. A., Verratti, T., & Chiselko, G. (2000, April). Using a large projection screen as an alternative to head-mounted displays for virtual environments (PDF). In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 478-485).
  5. McMahan, A. (2013). Immersion, engagement, and presence: A method for analyzing 3-D video games (PDF). In The video game theory reader (pp. 89-108). Routledge.
  6. Qin, H., Patrick Rau, P. L., & Salvendy, G. (2009). Measuring player immersion in the computer game narrative (PDF). Intl. Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 25(2), 107-133.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Agrawal, S., Simon, A., Bech, S., Bæntsen, K., & Forchhammer, S. (2020). Defining Immersion: Literature Review and Implications for Research on Audiovisual Experiences (PDF). Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 68(6), 404-417.
  8. Francombe, J., Brookes, T., & Mason, R. (2017). Evaluation of spatial audio reproduction methods (part 1): Elicitation of perceptual differences. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 65(3), 198-211.
  9. Murray, J. H. (2016). Hamlet on the Holodeck. Simon and Schuster. p. 99.
  10. Slater, M., & Wilbur, S. (1997). A framework for immersive virtual environments (FIVE): Speculations on the role of presence in virtual environments (PDF). Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 6(6), 603-616.
  11. Witmer, B. G., & Singer, M. J. (1998). Measuring presence in virtual environments: A presence questionnaire. Presence, 7(3), 225-240.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Ermi, L., & Mäyrä, F. (2005). Fundamental components of the gameplay experience: Analyzing immersion (PDF). Paper presented at the 2005 digital games research association's second international conference.
  13. Thon, J.-N., "Immersion Revisited: On the Value of a Contested Concept," in Extending Experiences. Structure, Analysis and Design of Computer Game Player Experience, Lapland University Press, Rovaniemi, Finland, 2008.
  14. Arsenault, D. (2005). Dark waters: Spotlight on immersion (PDF). In GAMEON-NA International Conference (pp. 50-52). Eurosis.
  15. Slater, M., "A note on presence terminology," in Presence connect, 2003.
  16. Zheng, J. M., Chan, K. W., & Gibson, I. (1998). Virtual reality. Ieee Potentials, 17(2), 20-23.
  17. Vince, J. (2004). Introduction to virtual reality. Springer Science & Business Media.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Lele, A. (2013). Virtual reality and its military utility (PDF). Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 4(1), 17-26.
  19. Valentino, K., Christian, K., & Joelianto, E. (2017). Virtual reality flight simulator. Internetworking Indonesia Journal, 9(1), 21-25.
  20. Gromer, D., Reinke, M., Christner, I., & Pauli, P. (2019). Causal interactive links between presence and fear in virtual reality height exposure. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 141.
  21. Garcia-Palacios, A., Hoffman, H., Carlin, A., Furness III, T. A., & Botella, C. (2002). Virtual reality in the treatment of spider phobia: a controlled study. Behaviour research and therapy, 40(9), 983-993.
  22. Zyda, M. (2005). From visual simulation to virtual reality to games. Computer, 38(9), 25-32.
  23. McShaffry, M. (2014). Game coding complete. Nelson Education. p. 34 - 35.
  24. Wolf, M. J. (2001). The medium of the video game. University of Texas Press.
  25. "Newzoo Key Numbers". Newzoo.
  26. Rouse III, R. (2010). Game design: Theory and practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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