遊戲化

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遊戲化粵拼jau4 hei3 faa3英文gamification)係遊戲設計領域嘅一種應用,定義上係指將遊戲設計上嘅理論同原理應用落去遊戲以外嘅場合當中(application of game design elements and principles in non-game contexts)[1],目的通常係提升某啲人對某啲活動嘅投入程度[2][3]

遊戲化常見於管理學教育學、同市場學當中:管理學應用通常係嘗試用遊戲化提升打工仔做嘢嘅投入程度[4],而教育學就係想用遊戲化提升學生對學習嘅投入程度[5]。舉個例子說明,教育學上嘅遊戲化可以如下:研究者運用遊戲設計上有意義嘅玩(meaningful play)概念;「有意義嘅玩」意思係,一隻遊戲如果要令玩家投入,噉隻遊戲就要能夠令玩家感知得到行動同結果之間嘅關係;於是個研究者就會睇吓一般遊戲係用乜方法達到有意義嘅玩嘅,佢發覺遊戲好多時會以一啲即時性嘅方法俾反饋俾個玩家;跟住佢就設計出一款電腦程式,個程式會監察住學生喺網上做嘅作業,而且曉喺學生做作業嗰陣,俾啲即時性嘅評語;然後個研究者再做返個實驗,比較吓「唔用呢個程式」同「用咗呢個程式」兩個情況下,後者當中啲學生投入程度係咪真係高咗-如果係,噉佢就有證據指呢個做法真係掂嘅[5]

遊戲化嘅概念喺廿一世紀初出現,打後嘅研究證實咗,用得適當嘅遊戲化普遍都可以有效噉提升打工仔同學生做嘢嘅投入程度[6],不過遊戲化嘅使用需要考慮受試者同場合嘅特性[7]

常見技法[編輯]

以下係遊戲化上常用嘅基本技法,喺遊戲設計上都好常見:

  • 得分:每當一個個體成功達到某啲嘢,就俾若干分數佢,分數會幫佢留意住自己嘅進度[8]
  • 徽章(badges):每當一個個體成功達到某啲里程碑,就俾一啲視覺上吸引嘅物體佢,徽章用途在於確立玩家嘅成就、象徵佢哋嘅成功、同作為虛擬嘅地位象徵(status symbol)[9]
  • 排行榜(leaderboard):一個排行榜會將玩家按分數同有嘅徽章等基準排名;喺遊戲化上,一個典型嘅排行榜會淨係將最高分嗰啲玩家列出嚟,而通常會為免令低分嘅人感受唔好唔會將最低分嘅人列出嚟[10]
  • 頭像(avatar):每個玩家有得揀一個影像做自己喺遊戲入面嘅代表,有啲遊戲甚至俾玩家創造自己嘅頭像;頭像嘅使用令隻遊戲變得更加有個人性[11]
  • 進展(progression):玩家要能夠感覺自己「進展緊」,所以遊戲化好多時會俾玩家隨住佢哋經驗值或者分數增加而得到更多嘅嘢,例如係隨住一個學生得到經驗值,老師就俾佢有權做一啲更加深嘅額外作業或者多幾個頭像揀[12]
  • 有意義嘅故仔(meaningful story):遊戲好多時都有故仔,遊戲當中嘅角色可以令玩家產生認同感,而故仔會賦與意義俾隻遊戲嘅目標(「個主角要由地圖呢個位行去呢個位,因為佢要去救佢隻寵物」);喺遊戲化當中,故仔可以令到冇乜吸引力嘅現實變得更有刺激性,例如如果醫護人員想將減肥遊戲化,佢哋可以叫用家一路用跑步機一路想像自己俾喪屍追緊[13]
  • 快速回輸(rapid feedback):盡可能令受試者做完某啲嘢之後即刻得到回輸(睇埋有意義嘅玩[14]
  • 理想難度(optimal difficulty):將工作嘅難度調較成適合受試者嘅技能水平;因為呢種難度最能夠引致心流[14]
  • 將複雜嘅工作揼散做細部份(breaking complex tasks into small simple tasks):噉做會令受試者比較願意開始郁手做[14]
  • 容許多條成功路線(allowing multiple paths to success):確保個遊戲係設計成一個受試者有得用多種唔同方法達致一個成功嘅效果[14]

睇埋[編輯]

參考書[編輯]

  • Boulton, Jima (2014). 100 Ideas that Changed the Web. ISBN 978-1-78067-370-7.
  • Burke, Brian (2014). Gamify: How Gamification Motivates People to Do Extraordinary Things. Bibliomotion. ISBN 978-1-937134-85-3.
  • Chou, Yu-kai (2015). Actionable Gamification: Beyond Points, Badges, and Leaderboards. Octalysis Media. ISBN 978-1-5117-4404-1.
  • Deterding, Sebastian; Walz, Steffen P. (2015). The Gameful World: Approaches, Issues, Applications. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-02800-4.
  • Fuchs, Mathias; Fizek, Sonia; Ruffino, Paolo; Schrape, Niklas (2014). Rethinking Gamification. Lüneburg: meson press. ISBN 978-3-95796-000-9.
  • Haiken, Michele (2017). Gamify Literacy: Boost Comprehension, Collaboration and Learning. International Society for Technology in Education. ISBN 978-1-56484-386-9.
  • Herger, Mario (2014). Enterprise Gamification – Engaging people by letting them have fun (Vol. 01). EGC Media. ISBN 978-1-4700-0064-6.
  • Herger, Mario (2015). Gamification in Healthcare & Fitness (Vol. 07). EGC Media. ISBN 978-1-5028-5609-8.
  • Horachek, David (2014). Creating eLearning Games with Unity. Packt Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84969-343-1.
  • Hugos, Michael (2012). Enterprise Games – Using Game Mechanics to Build a Better Business. O’Reilly Media. ISBN 978-1-4493-1956-4.
  • Kapp, Karl M.; Blair, Lucas; Mesch, Rich (2013). The Gamification of Learning and Instruction Fieldbook: Ideas into Practice. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-67724-7.
  • Kumar, Janaki; Herger, Mario (2013). Gamification At Work. Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN 978-87-92964-07-6.
  • Marczewski, Andrzej (2015). Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play: Gamification, Game Thinking and Motivational Design. CreateSpace Independent Publishing. ISBN 978-1-5147-4566-3.
  • McGonigal, Jane (2015). SuperBetter: A Revolutionary Approach to Getting Stronger, Happier, Braver and More Resilient. Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0-670-06954-5.
  • Pennenberg, Adam L. (2013). Play At Work – How games Inspire Breakthrough Thinking. Portfolio Penguin. ISBN 978-1-59184-479-2.
  • Sehr, H. Cecilia (2014). Evaluation and Credentialing in Digital Music Communities: Benefits and Challenges for Learning and Assessment. ISBN 978-0-262-52714-9.
  • Suriano, Jason (2017). Office Arcade: Gamification, Byte-Size Learning, and Other Wins on the Way to Productive Human Resources. Lioncrest Publishing. ISBN 978-1-6196-1605-9.
  • Werbach, Kevin; Hunter, Dan (2012). For The Win – How Game Thinking Can Revolutionize Your Business. Wharton Digital Press. ISBN 978-1-61363-023-5.
  • Zichermann, Gabe; Cunningham, Christopher (2011). Gamification by Design: Implementing Game Mechanics in Web and Mobile Apps. Auflage: O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-1-4493-9767-8.
  • Zichermann, Gabe; Linder, Joselin (2013). The Gamification Revolution – How Leaders Leverage Game Mechanics to Crush the Competition. McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-180831-6.

[編輯]

  1. Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J., McCarthy, I. & Pitt, L. (2015). "Is it all a game? Understanding the principles of gamification". Business Horizons. 58 (4): 411–420.
  2. Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011, September). From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification. In Proceedings of the 15th international academic MindTrek conference: Envisioning future media environments (pp. 9-15). ACM.
  3. Huotari, K., & Hamari, J. (2012, October). Defining gamification: a service marketing perspective. In Proceeding of the 16th international academic MindTrek conference (pp. 17-22). ACM.
  4. Neeli, B. K. (2012, December). A method to engage employees using gamification in BPO industry. In 2012 Third International Conference on Services in Emerging Markets (pp. 142-146). IEEE.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Iosup, A., & Epema, D. (2014, March). An experience report on using gamification in technical higher education. In Proceedings of the 45th ACM technical symposium on Computer science education (pp. 27-32). ACM.
  6. Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Sarsa, H. (2014, January). Does Gamification Work?-A Literature Review of Empirical Studies on Gamification. In HICSS (Vol. 14, No. 2014, pp. 3025-3034).
  7. Koivisto, Jonna; Hamari, Juho (2015). "Demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification". Computers in Human Behavior. 35: 179–188.
  8. Werbach, K., & Hunter, D. (2012). For the Win: How game thinking can revolutionize your business. Philadelphia: Wharton Digital Press.
  9. Antin, J., & Churchill, E. F. (2011). Badges in social media: A social psychological perspective. Paper presented at the CHI 2011, Vancouver.
  10. Burguillo, J. C. (2010). Using game theory and Competition-based Learning to stimulate student motivation and performance. Computers & Education, 55(2), 566e575.
  11. Annetta, L. A. (2010). The "I's" have it: A framework for serious educational game design. Review of General Psychology, 14(2), 105e112.
  12. Level Up! The role of progression for gameful design. Medium.
  13. Nicholson, S. (2015). A RECIPE for meaningful gamification. In T. Reiners, & L. C. Wood (Eds.), Gamification in education and business (pp. 1e20). New York: Springer.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Simões, J., Redondo, R. D., & Vilas, A. F. (2013). A social gamification framework for a K-6 learning platform. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(2), 345-353.