好奇

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢
著名 19 世紀細菌學家佐治·納駝喺度用顯微鏡觀察件樣本,展示好奇心

好奇粵拼hou3 kei4英文curiosity拉丁文cūriōsus)係指想要獲得資訊或者知識而起嘅一系列行為情緒反應。

定義[編輯]

好奇想知部洗衣機裏面有啲乜,仲捐埋個頭入部機度睇(探索行為)。
睇埋:情感同埋認知

好奇係一種心理狀態,可以當係情感嘅一種。喺心理學定義上,情感可以泛指啲同動機相關嘅身心狀態,每種情感都會對應某類特定嘅刺激,亦會對應某拃特定嘅變化,令個人有動機去做某啲行為[1]。舉例說明,係種情感[2]

  • 刺激:一隻動物會驚,通常係因為感知到啲危險嘢;
  • 身心變化:隻動物驚,就會心跳加快同埋對擘到大一大;
  • 動機行為:佢往往會有股強嘅動力想逃走,遠離令佢驚嘅刺激。

而响心理學上,好奇感係畀人噉描述嘅[3]

英文原文:"... the impulse towards better cognition."[4]
粵文翻譯:(好奇係)嗰股(令人)趨向更優良認知衝動
英文原文:"... a 'manipulatory motive' - that drives organisms to engage in puzzle-solving behavior that involved no tangible reward."[5]
-粵文翻譯:(好奇係)一股操作性質嘅動力—會引導生物去作出唔會帶嚟咩具體犒賞解謎行為。
英文原文:"... a cognitive induced deprivation that arises from the perception of a gap in knowledge and understanding."[6]
-粵文翻譯:(好奇係)一股受引起嘅認知缺乏感,源於感知到(自己)响知識理解上有罅隙。

基於呢啲描述,好奇就可以噉想像[7]:Sec. 2

  • 刺激:源於隻動物感知到啲認知上有刺激性嘅事物(睇下面);
  • 身心變化:一隻動物覺得好奇嗰陣,唔會好受壓,彷彿好似件事物係一樣犒賞[8]
  • 動機行為:佢仲會有探索行為,會(例如)行埋引起佢好奇嗰件事物度,想睇清楚啲件事物。

心理學、神經科學動物行為學等嘅領域都有對好奇感做研究,會想知(例如)一個人覺得好奇嗰陣,佢個裏面發生緊啲乜變化[3]。而且人工智能(AI)領域嘅工作者,仲有嘗試教電腦展現出好似人同第啲動物噉嘅好奇行為[7]:Sec. 3

起因刺激[編輯]

新穎性[編輯]

睇埋:不匹配負向波

不確定性[編輯]

衝突性[編輯]

複雜性[編輯]

內文:複雜性

探索行為[編輯]

睇埋:趨近行為同埋

睇埋[編輯]

文獻[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. Panksepp, J. (2004). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. Oxford university press. p. 9. "Our emotional feelings reflect our ability to subjectively experience certain states of the nervous system."
  2. LeDoux, J. E. (2012). Evolution of human emotion: a view through fear. In Progress in brain research (Vol. 195, pp. 431-442). Elsevier.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kidd, C., & Hayden, B. Y. (2015). The psychology and neuroscience of curiosity. Neuron, 88(3), 449-460.
  4. James, W. (1983). Talks to Teachers on Psychology and to Students on Some of Life's Ideals (Vol. 12). Harvard University Press.
  5. Harlow, H. F., Harlow, M. K., & Meyer, D. R. (1950). Learning motivated by a manipulation drive. Journal of experimental psychology, 40(2), 228.
  6. Loewenstein, G. (1994). The psychology of curiosity: A review and reinterpretation. Psychological bulletin, 116(1), 75.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Wu, Q., & Miao, C. (2013). Curiosity: From psychology to computation (PDF). ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 46(2), 1-26.
  8. Costa, Vincent D.; Tran, Valery L.; Turchi, Janita; Averbeck, Bruno B. (2014). "Dopamine modulates novelty seeking behavior during decision making". Behavioral Neuroscience. 128 (4): 556-566.

[編輯]