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Wikipedia:點樣睇生物分類框How to read a taxobox
各種嘅貓
各種嘅貓
瀕危指標
馴養
物種分類
域(Domain): 真核域 Eukarya
動物界 Animalia
脊索動物門 Chordata
亞門(Subphylum): 脊椎動物亞門 Vertebrata
哺乳綱 Mammalia
亞綱 真獸亞綱 Euthria
食肉目 Carnivora
貓科 Felidae
貓屬 Felis
野貓 F. silvestris
亞種 (Subspecies): 家貓 F. s. catus
三元學名
Felis silvestris catus
Linnaeus,1758年)[1]
別名

Felis lybica 無效次異名
Felis catus 已經無效

家貓粵拼gaa1 maau1英國話:domestic cat;學名Felis silvestris catus,亦都有其他未經《國際動物命名法規》認可嘅名,好似係「Felis catus」)[2][3],通常簡稱,係一種小型嘅貓科動物,係野貓Felis silvestris,又叫斑貓)嘅亞種。佢哋之所以會俾人嗌做「家」貓,係因為佢哋喺人類嘅屋企嗰度好常見:人類自古以嚟就有養貓嘅紀錄,並且喺成 5,000 年前就已經完全將貓馴養嗮。而到咗而家,家貓經已識得主動噉親近啲養佢哋或者餵佢哋嘅人,而且又曉捉老鼠等嘅害蟲,所以佢哋係響人類之間最有人氣嘅寵物之一,飼養率僅次於

家貓喺身體構造上同其他貓科動物相似-有住強而有彈性嘅身體、快嘅反射、又利又曉縮入去嘅、同埋可以用嚟殺啲細隻獵物嘅尖。貓嘅感官好敏銳,聽到一啲頻率高到人類聽唔到嘅(例如係老鼠呢啲細隻動物發出嘅聲),而且仲可以係近乎全黑嘅環境嗰度睇到嘢,同大部份嘅哺乳類一樣嗅覺勁過人、但係彩色視覺渣過人。喺生態學上嚟講,佢哋好啱做喺日出之前或者日落之後冇幾耐有少少陽光嘅嗰段時間活動嘅獵食者。貓喺獵食嗰陣通常係單獨行動嘅,但係佢哋係一種群居動物-曉用唔同嘅叫聲、身體語言、或者外激素嚟同同類溝通[4]

家貓好識繁殖[5],佢哋平均有 12 年命左右(呢個數可以因品種而異)。喺一個受控制嘅環境嗰度,攞佢哋嚟配種或者鑒賞好容易。而另一方面,佢哋嘅繁殖生存能力亦都會做成一啲問題:有好多人唔負責任噉樣唔幫自己養嘅貓做絕育,跟手仲要揼咗佢哋,搞到全世界好多地方都有流浪貓,呢啲流浪貓成日會對佢哋周圍嘅環境做成破壞,例如係佢哋獵食鳥類嘅行為搞到唔少鳥類絕種-估計目前有至少 30 個品種嘅鳥類係因為流浪貓而絕種嘅[6],而且流浪貓嘅存在會令到一個地方本嚟啱再引入返啲鳥類品種嘅都變到唔啱[7]。就係因為噉,有好多人(好似係美國動物管制官)都專職噉負責處理流浪貓嘅相關問題[8]

身體結構[編輯]

一隻典型嘅成年貓公嘅身體構造圖

大細[編輯]

體重[編輯]

一隻成年家貓嘅體重通常係喺 4 至 5 公斤(9 至 10 )左右[9],雖然有啲品種-例如係緬因貓(Maine Coon)-大隻到可以去到超過 11 公斤(24 磅)重,而另一方面亦都有報告話揾到有成年嘅家貓得嗰 2 公斤(4 磅)重左右[10]。目前世界紀錄最重嘅家貓有 21 公斤(50 磅)重,而有紀錄最輕嘅成年家貓就得 1 公斤(2 磅)重[11]。一隻貓有幾大隻可以受好多因素影響,包括係有冇人養:喺屋企養嘅貓通常都因為多嘢食營養好啲所以會大隻啲,例如係喺美國波士頓做嘅一個研究就發現,嗰頭啲野貓平均嚟講嘅有 4 公斤(9 磅)重,而嘅有 3 公斤(7 磅)重-稍為瘦過平均值[12]

身長[編輯]

喺身長方面,成年嘅家貓平均有 23 至 25 厘米(9 到 10 )噉高、46 厘米(18 寸)噉長,公大隻過乸少少,而佢哋條尾平均有 30 厘米(12 寸)噉長[13]

一隻貓嘅骨骼

骨架[編輯]

脊骨嘅結構上,貓同其他哺乳類相似:有 7 橛頸椎(同絕大部份嘅哺乳類一樣)、13 橛胸椎(人類有 12 橛)、7 橛腰椎(人類有 5 橛)、3 橛骶骨(人類有 5 橛)、同埋條尾度有唔定數量嘅尾椎(而人類就有條尾龍骨[14]。由以上嘅數字睇到,貓嘅胸椎同腰椎係零舍多咗幾橛嘅,就係因為呢樣嘢貓先至可以噉柔軟靈活。貓嘅脊骨同其他脊椎動物嘅一樣,係全身骨骼嘅支架,佢哋嗰 13 條肋骨膊頭、同埋盆骨都係駁咗喺條脊骨上面嚟組成佢哋成棚骨嘅。同人類嘅手臂唔同,貓嘅前肢係由兩舊可以好自由噉郁嘅鎖骨駁落去膊頭嗰度嘅,令到佢哋可以成隻捐入去佢哋個頭穿得過嘅空間度[15]

頭同牙[編輯]

一隻貓嘅頭骨;貓嘅眼窩異常噉大。喺呢幅圖嗰度仲見到佢嗰對又長又尖嘅犬齒。

貓嘅頭骨有唔尋常噉大嘅眼窩,令到佢哋可以有對大,睇嘢(尤其喺夜晚)嗰陣更加清楚,更加叻捉啲細隻嘅獵物。另一方面,佢哋嘅頭骨有個好犀利嘅牙骹[16]。喺呢個牙骹入面有住好啱用嚟殺死獵物同埋撕開啲肉嘅尖牙,當一隻貓捉到佢隻獵物嗰陣,佢會用佢嗰兩隻又長又尖嘅犬齒一嘢咬落去隻獵物條度,將對牙插入去隻獵物嘅頸椎之間嘅空間,一吓整斷佢條脊骨,令到佢即刻癱瘓同死亡。同其他貓科動物比起上嚟,家貓嘅犬齒之間嘅空間好窄,呢個係一種為咗要捉好似老鼠等嘅細隻嚙齒目動物而進化出嚟嘅適應[17]-因為呢啲嚙齒目動物嘅脊骨通常都好細條。而犬齒後面嗰啲大牙好似把鉸剪噉,可以好有效噉將啲肉撕做細細塊,對於一隻貓食嘢同埋消化嚟講好緊要。最後,貓啲牙齒健康好過人類-佢哋啲牙上面浸琺瑯質厚啲、啲口水冇噉有殺傷力、比較少會有嘢食碎留低喺啲牙罅嗰度、而且又好少可會食啲有嘅嘢,所以佢哋同人類比起上嚟比較少會蛀牙或者點[18]

四肢[編輯]

貓同一樣,係趾行(Digitigrades)嘅-佢哋行路嗰陣得對腳趾係會掂地嘅[19]。貓行起路上嚟落地嘅點好精確,因為佢哋同其他貓科動物一樣,行路嗰陣對後肢踩嘅地方會近乎啱啱好係相應嘅前肢啱啱造出嚟嘅腳印,令到佢哋行路嗰時發出嚟嘅噪音同埋腳印量減少,亦都令到佢哋行路嗰陣對後肢保證唔會踩到啲會製造噪音嘅嘢。同大多數哺乳類唔同嘅係,貓行路嗰陣有個特殊嘅步法:佢哋每行一步會將個身體左右是旦一邊嗰兩隻腳都郁完先至會再郁另一邊嗰兩隻(呢樣嘢似駱駝長頸鹿)。當佢哋要加快腳步嗰陣時,貓先至會用返一般多數哺乳類行路嘅步法-對角嘅前肢同後肢一齊郁[19][20]

[編輯]

一隻家貓伸咗出嚟嘅爪;俾佢搲到會好痛。

同其他貓科動物一樣,貓有住曉伸縮又鋒利嘅[21]。貓大多數都係喺前肢有五隻爪,而後肢有四隻爪嘅[22],當中前肢嘅爪通常會利過後肢嗰啲-所以更加啱用嚟捉同殺死獵物[23]。貓嘅前肢嗰度多咗出嚟嘅嗰隻第五隻爪(即係所謂嘅狼爪;Dewclaw)側面會有舊肉突咗出嚟,望落似第六隻腳趾,而呢樣特徵喺好似獅子老虎等嘅大貓同埋狗身上都會揾到。佢喺一般行路嗰陣都冇乜用,但係喺隻貓跳嗰陣似乎可以起到防滑嘅作用。除咗噉,貓仲識得自由噉控制自己啲爪嘅伸縮:當一隻貓放鬆嗰陣時,佢啲爪係收埋咗喺腳趾嘅肉墊周圍嗰啲皮毛入面嘅,呢樣嘢幫到令到啲爪少啲接觸到地面,間接令到佢哋冇噉易會磨損,而且令到隻貓響跟蹤獵物嗰時更加靜;而佢啲爪通常喺要捕獵、自衛、或者係攀爬嗰陣時先至會伸出嚟。

某啲品種嘅貓零舍會有多咗幾隻腳趾嘅情況(Polydactyly)[24],尤其係喺北美洲東北岸嗰頭啲貓[25]

生理[編輯]

一般生理數字[26]:330
體温 38.6 °C(101.5 °F)
心跳率 每分鐘 120 至 140 吓
唞氣率 每分鐘 16 至 40 吓

貓同人類接觸好密切,所以人對貓嘅生理研究得好徹底;一般嚟講,貓嘅生理同其他食肉哺乳類嘅好相似,但係有啲唔尋常、似沙漠動物嘅特徵,噉大概係因為現代嘅貓係由住喺沙漠嘅動物嗰度進化出嚟嘅[27]

體温[編輯]

貓身體各部份嘅熱成像;圖入面睇到一隻貓對眼同埋四肢啲肉墊零舍熱,而佢哋個就比較凍。

有一樣似沙漠動物嘅特徵係,貓嘅耐熱能力高人類一截:通常人類一旦皮膚温度去到攝氏 38 度(華氏 100 度)左右就會開始覺得唔舒服,但係貓就要一路去到成攝氏 52 度(華氏 126 度)先至會開始唔舒服。如果有俾佢哋,佢哋仲可以忍受到成攝氏 56 度(華氏 133 度)嘅高温[28]

貓保温主要用減少皮膚嘅血液流量,而降温就用由個口嗰度蒸發啲水份。貓唔識流汗,得啲腳嗰度嘅肉墊叫做有些少汗腺喺度[29],而喺温度高到開始唔舒服嗰陣會唞大氣嚟幫手降温[30]。一隻貓嘅體温唔會因為晝夜而改變-而貓(唔似得人類)事實上普遍都係冇乜晝夜節律可言嘅,呢點應該同佢哋無論朝頭早定夜晚都會活動嘅習性有關[31]

水份[編輯]

另一點似沙漠動物嘅係,貓嘅大便比較乾,小便好濃-而呢兩點都幫到佢哋保存身體入面嘅水份(水份對於維持體温嚟講好緊要);佢哋嘅好有效率-佢哋可以淨係靠食肉嚟生存,完全唔使飲水都得[32],甚至乎能夠靠飲海水嚟吸收水份-相比之下,一個人類如果齋飲海水嘅話,佢最後係會渴死收場嘅[33]。順帶一提,貓查實係識游水嘅,但係佢哋落水會好快所以佢哋一般都唔鍾意掂水[34]

營養[編輯]

一隻食緊乾貓糧嘅貓;世界主要嘅貓糧製造商喺法律上受規定,要佢哋整嘅貓糧達到某啲營養指標,所以貓糧好啱一般家貓食。
一隻咬緊貓草嘅貓;貓有陣時會走去咬某啲植物,但係佢哋都仲係食肉動物-植物唔會提供到貓生存需要嘅營養。

貓唔止係食肉動物,仲要係真正嘅食肉動物(True carnivore)-即係話佢哋身體必需嘅某啲營養只能夠係肉嗰度揾到,所以佢哋唔食肉生存唔到。佢哋嘅生理構造進化到完全適合有效噉吞食同埋處理肉[35]:貓嘅消化系統適應咗食肉嘅生存方式,短過雜食動物(例如係人類)嘅好多,而且冇咗某啲用嚟消化碳水化合物酵素[36]-呢啲特徵令到貓消化唔到由植物嗰度嚟嘅嘢食同埋某啲脂肪酸。一隻貓要生存,佢食嘅嘢當中有至少 20% 嘅要係蛋白質(相比之下,好似老鼠噉嘅雜食動物要生存淨係需要食嘅嘢當中有 4% 係蛋白質)。雖然係噉,貓有陣時會食草吞草[37],之但係噉唔係因為草提供到佢哋生存需要嘅營養-佢哋噉做似乎係因為佢哋要吸收葉酸(Folic acid)同纖維,後者幫到佢哋排便以及以排便嘅方法屙走啲寄生蟲或者其他有害嘅嘢;而且貓食完草之後好多時會嘔,噉又會幫到佢哋將一啲獵物體內消化唔到嘅部份或者自我清潔嗰陣唔覺意吞咗嘅毛嘔返出嚟[38]。最後,有啲植物-例如係貓薄荷(Catnip)-會令到貓興奮,所以貓有時會走去咬佢哋,但係佢哋都仲係提供唔到貓生存必需嘅營養。

貓喺生理上係好徹頭徹尾嘅食肉動物,但係西方有啲鼓吹素食嘅人嘗試過揾啲用化學方法合成造出嚟嘅營養(即係話唔使落真肉)嚟整貓糧,並且諗住攞呢啲產品去賣錢[39],但係呢啲產品最後都仲係失敗咗-事實證明咗佢哋提供唔到貓生存需要嘅營養,甚至對貓做成危害,令到佢哋有嚴重營養不足嘅危險[40]

雖然啲大眾媒體好興將貓描繪成鍾意飲奶,但係查實成年嘅貓多數都有乳糖消化不良(Lactose intolerance)嘅問題,飲咗奶好多時會肚屙[41]

精氨酸[編輯]

貓比起其他哺乳類更加依賴精氨酸(Arginine)呢種氨基酸。貓體內冇乜啲可以用嚟自己合成精氨酸嘅酵素[42],如果一隻貓嘅餐單嗰度冇咗精氨酸,佢嘅體重會跌得好勁而且會死得好快[43]。噉係因為精氨酸喺貓嘅體內做好多好緊要嘅作用:例如係喺造尿嘅過程當中幫手將等嘅毒素變做尿素,等貓可以將佢哋排出體外-當一隻貓食得唔夠精氨酸但係又繼續食其他氨基酸嘅時候,後者會好快噉俾隻貓嘅身體分解並且產生氨,但係因為冇咗精氨酸,隻貓嘅身體冇辦法做啲作用嚟排走呢啲多餘嘅氨,而當佢體內有太多氨(Hyperammonemia)嗰陣時,佢會開始出現冇力、嘔、同埋失調等嘅症狀,而且嚴重到有得搞到隻貓喺幾日之內死亡-除非隻貓及時吸收到足夠嘅精氨酸。精氨酸呢種營養喺好多家禽野味、同埋海鮮(即係貓平時會食嗰啲嘢)嗰度都會揾得到,而貓糧實會有人工噉加咗精氨酸落去。

牛磺酸[編輯]

貓另外一樣喺營養上唔尋常嘅嘢係佢哋嘅身體唔識自己生產牛磺酸(Taurine)[44],如果冇咗呢種營養,貓會好快噉出現黃斑部退化,而且佢哋嘅視網膜會慢慢噉分解令到佢哋盲,仲會令到佢哋嘅心肺同埋繁殖系統功能受障礙,如果係未成年嘅貓,牛磺酸短缺仲會令到佢哋嘅中央神經系統發育有問題。牛磺酸呢種營養喺海鮮同肉(即係貓平時食嗰啲嘢)入面都會揾到,但係將啲嘢食煮或者焗熟會破壞牛磺酸-生嘅呢啲嘢食先至會有最豐富嘅牛磺酸[45]

維他命A[編輯]

維他命A 對於貓嘅視網膜同埋繁殖系統健康嚟講好緊要。維他命A 係一種可以溶落脂肪嗰度嘅維他命同埋貓嘅餐單不可或缺嘅一部份。通常靠自己合成維他命嘅過程都係喺啲腸臟入面嗰度做嘅,但係貓嘅身體唔識做呢樣嘢[46],所以零舍需要額外吸收[47]。維他命A 喺好多嘅動物內臟嗰度都會揾到。

維他命D3[編輯]

貓嘅餐單度一定要有維他命D3,因為佢哋嘅身體唔曉由陽光嗰度合成維他命D3[48]。呢種維他命對於貓嘅身體構成骨骼同埋保嚟講好緊要,而且神經同肌肉嘅控制都要吸收鈣同埋[49]

健康[編輯]

一隻睇緊獸醫嘅貓;負責任嘅主人冚唪唥都應該定時定候帶佢哋啲貓去獸醫嗰度做檢查。

自從 19 世紀以嚟,醫療科技嘅進步令到人類嘅壽命長咗好多,而貓都係一樣。喺 1980 年代早期,有人養嘅貓平均有 7 年命[50][51],而到咗 1995 年,呢個數字就上升到去 9.4 年,跟手 2014 年嘅統計就顯示有人養嘅貓平均有 12 到 15 年命[52]。喺某啲個案入面,甚至話有貓可以一路生存到成 30 零歲先死[53]。目前有紀錄最老嘅貓有 38 歲命[54]

貓條命有幾長取決於好多因素,當中絕育可以有效噉延長屋企隻貓嘅壽命(所以啲獸醫先至噉鼓勵呢樣嘢):有研究顯示,做咗絕育嘅貓公嘅壽命係冇做絕育嘅貓公嘅兩倍,而做咗絕育嘅貓乸嘅壽命就係冇做絕育嘅貓乸嘅 1.62 倍。噉樣係因為絕咗育嘅貓公唔會生睪丸癌,絕咗育嘅貓乸唔會生子宮癌或者卵巢癌;而且無論公乸,做絕育都會令到乳腺癌嘅風險下降[55]。絕育對於貓嘅壽命嘅呢啲正面影響連喺野貓嗰度都睇得到[56][57]

中毒[編輯]

有好多嘢都可以令到貓中毒。最明顯嘅就有殺蟲水同埋除草劑呢啲對人類都有毒嘅嘢,當中老鼠藥係令到貓中毒嘅主因之一[58]。但係除咗呢啲明顯嘅嘢之外,有好多對人類冇害嘅嘢都可能對貓嚟講有毒[59],噉係因為貓嘅喺某啲方面冇其他動物(包括人同狗)噉叻將啲毒素由自己嘅身體嗰度清走,令到某啲毒素喺貓嘅身體入面零舍容易會累積起嚟[60],而且貓不嬲都對佢哋環境入面嘅污染物特別敏感[61]

好多人類用嘅都唔俾得貓食或者掂。例如係止痛退燒藥撲熱息痛(Paracetamol)對貓嚟講係種劇毒,就算係極細嘅劑量一隻貓食咗落肚都可以引致死亡,要即刻急救[62];就連有時會攞嚟幫貓醫關節炎阿士匹靈(Aspirin)都仲係對貓有毒多過對人有毒-即係話貓嘅身體頂得順阿士匹靈,但係冇人類嘅噉頂得順呢種物質,所以用佢醫貓嗰陣要好小心至得[63]

有唔少屋企入面常見嘅嘢都可能對貓有毒,所以養貓嘅人用起呢啲嘢上嚟要零舍小心。呢啲嘢包括咗含(Naphthalene)嘅產品,例如係臭丸;含苯酚(Phenol)嘅產品-好多清潔劑都有呢隻嘢,所以養貓嘅人買同用清潔劑嗰陣要小心[64];同埋乙二醇防凍劑入面好多時會有嘅化學物質[65]。亦都有啲成日會喺屋企種嘅植物係對貓有害嘅,例如係麝香百合(Lilium longiflorum)嘅就可以對貓嘅腎臟做成永久同足以致命嘅損害[66]。就連一啲人類食得落肚嘅嘢都可能對貓有毒,好似係朱古力洋蔥、同埋大蒜呀噉。總括嚟講,喺人類住嘅地方常見,而且對貓有毒嘅嘢包括咗:

[編輯]

  • 止痛藥撲熱息痛;就算係喺對人類安全嘅劑量之下都可以對貓產生嚴重嘅毒害。
  • 用嚟醫貓關節炎嘅阿士匹靈;佢對貓嘅毒性大過對人類嘅。
  • 用嚟抗甩毛嘅米諾地爾(Minoxidil);對貓可以致命。
  • 含有樟腦成分嘅藥,好似係曼秀雷敦綠油精萬金油白花油噉。

環境化學品[編輯]

  • 多種嘅殺蟲劑同埋除草劑;好似係對人類同埋多數哺乳動物低危險性嘅除蟲菊對貓係劇毒。
  • 含萘嘅產品,例如係臭丸。
  • 含苯酚嘅產品,例如係六氯酚滴露等多種清潔劑。
  • 防凍劑乙二醇;就算係得一羹仔都足以殺死一隻貓。

植物[編輯]

人類嘅嘢食[編輯]

  • 朱古力;雖然貓好少可會主動噉走去食佢,唔似得狗。
  • 墨魚、乾魷魚絲、同埋葡提子會造成貓肝中毒同埋腎衰竭。
  • 洋蔥同大蒜。
  • 車厘子、同會引致嘔吐、唞氣困難、換氣過度、同埋震動昏迷。
  • 檸檬西柚、同埋等嘅柑桔屬植物可能會刺激到食道,令到隻貓嘔或者肚屙。
  • 牛油果嘅葉、果實種子、同埋樹皮含有之甘油酸(Persin),會造成貓嘔吐、肚屙、同埋唞氣困難。
  • 楊桃含好豐富嘅,會造成急性腎衰竭。
  • 士多啤梨含農藥同糖份太高,對貓有害。
  • 林柿可以塞住啲腸同埋引致腸炎
  • 桔、西柚、桃、車厘子、蘋果枇杷芒果紅勒士啤梨、同埋菠蘿嘅籽含有氰化物(Cyanide),可以導致隻貓肚屙、嘔、同埋下腹痛。
  • 相對於貓嘅嚟講,人類嘅嘢食含量大好多,所以人類嘢食會對貓嘅腎做成好大嘅負擔,長期食會造成腎衰竭。
  • 長期食啲動物嘅肝臟對貓有害。

感官[編輯]

視覺[編輯]

貓嘅視網膜後面有塊輝板,曉反射相機嘅光。

貓對眼好犀利,好啱做喺黑暗環境之下行動嘅獵食者。佢哋有好強嘅夜視能力,就算喺近乎全黑嘅環境都會睇到嘢-佢哋睇嘢需要嘅最低量係人類嘅六分之一[68]。佢哋睇嘢噉勁係因為佢哋嘅視網膜後面有一浸叫做輝板(Tapetum lucidum)嘅嘢,呢浸嘢會將穿過咗視網膜嘅光反射返落去塊視網膜嗰度,間接令到視網膜總體得到嘅光量多咗[69];除咗噉,貓嘅瞳孔極之大,而且同好似老虎噉嘅大貓唔同,佢哋嘅瞳孔又窄又長[70]-呢種瞳孔能夠冇色差噉將啲光聚焦落去塊視網膜嗰度;而且喺好黑嘅環境嗰度,一隻貓嘅瞳孔會放大,而且放大幅度好高-貓嘅瞳孔變大起上嚟會大到差唔多遮嗮成隻眼[71]。上述嘅種種原因都令到貓嘅夜視能力勁過人類好多。

之但係同人類俾起上嚟,貓嘅彩色視覺就渣一截,呢點同絕大多數非靈長目嘅哺乳類動物一樣。佢哋嘅視網膜淨係得兩種視錐細胞(Cone cell;視網膜上面一種負責探測顏色嘅細胞,人類嘅眼有三種視錐細胞),主要識得分藍色同埋黃綠色。佢哋唔多識分紅色綠色[72]

聽覺[編輯]

貓嘅耳仔好敏銳,係哺乳類當中最敏銳嘅聽覺之一。佢哋可以探測到好廣頻率嘅-由 55 至 79,000 赫茲聲波佢哋都聽到(響 500 到 3,200 赫茲之間最敏銳[68][73]),呢個間距相當於 10.5 個八度,而且超過人類同狗嘅-後者兩種動物聽到嘅頻率間距得嗰 9 個八度[74][75]。貓聽得到超聲波,呢樣嘢幫到佢哋探測啲細隻嚙齒目動物發出嚟同同伴溝通嘅超聲波,令到佢哋嘅獵食能力更加犀利(但係貓自己本身唔會用超聲波嚟同同伴溝通)[76][77]。除咗噉,貓對耳仔大而且仲識得郁,令到佢哋更加能夠擴大自己聽到嘅聲同埋探測啲聲嘅方向。

受到貓薄荷影響喺度猛噉碌嚟碌去嘅一隻貓;睇得出佢好興奮。

嗅覺[編輯]

貓嘅嗅覺好敏銳,因為佢哋有高度發展咗嘅嗅球(Olfactory bulb;脊椎動物個前腦當中處理嗅覺資訊嗰部分)同埋好大塊嘅嗅黏膜(Olfactory mucosa)-佢哋塊嗅黏膜嘅面積有成 5.8 平方厘米(0.9 平方吋),大約係人類嘅嗅黏膜嘅兩倍[78]。貓會運用佢哋敏銳嘅嗅覺同同伴溝通-佢哋嘅小便或者由香味腺嗰度噴出嚟嘅嘢可以帶有一啲好似係3-甲基-3-巰基-1-丁醇噉嘅費洛蒙,佢哋會發出唔同類嘅費洛蒙,而每種都會向聞到佢嘅同伴發出某啲特定嘅訊息[79][80]

貓對於帶有一種叫荊芥內酯(Nepetalactone)嘅物質嘅植物好敏感-呢啲植物包括咗貓薄荷、葛棗獼猴桃、同埋纈草等幾種[81]。啲貓一聞到佢哋陣除就會好興奮,有成大約 70 至 80% 嘅貓都係噉嘅樣[82]。噉據講係因為佢哋陣除聞落似某一種費洛蒙,刺激到啲貓嘅性慾[83]

味覺[編輯]

同人類比起上嚟,貓嘅味蕾數量好少-貓條脷上面得嗰 470 個味蕾左右,而人類就有成 9,000 個[84]。佢哋感受到嘅味道冇人類感受到嘅噉廣:佢哋嘅味蕾曉對氨基酸、味嘅嘢、同埋都有反應[85],但係無論家貓定野貓,佢哋身上都有一個基因突變,呢個突變搞到佢哋嘅甜味蕾黐唔到落去啲糖分子嗰度-即係話佢哋食唔出呢種味道[86]

貓對於佢哋啲嘢食嘅温度有種特別喜好,鍾意食温度喺大約攝氏 38 度(華氏 100 度)嘅嘢-呢個温度食落似係啱啱殺死咗嘅獵物,反映貓係一種天然嘅獵食動物。貓通常都會拒絕食凍或者啱啱雪過嘅嘢食-凍嘅嘢食對佢發出咗個訊息,話俾佢聽佢食緊嗰隻嘢死咗好耐(而死咗好耐嘅嘢通常都會比較大機會會係含毒素或者腐爛緊),所以啲貓唔鍾意。另一方面,貓亦都好興拒絕一啲佢哋冇食開嘅味道嘅嘢(就係所謂嘅恐新)或者一啲似以前曾經令到佢哋食咗唔舒服嘅味道嘅嘢。

觸覺[編輯]

貓面上嗰啲鬚係感覺毛,好敏感。

貓身上有唔少嘅感覺毛幫佢哋手感應佢哋嘅環境,尤其係佢哋塊面上嗰啲鬚。感覺毛掂到啲嘢或者氣流嗰陣,會令到隻貓探測到啲罅嘅闊度同埋喺黑暗入面啲嘢嘅位置。佢哋亦都令到隻貓喺適當嘅時候識得做角膜反射(Blink reflex;眨眼嚟保護對眼嘅條件反射)[68]

多數品種嘅貓都鍾意伏喺一啲高嘅地方。喺野外,高嘅地方有得攞嚟做打獵嗰陣匿埋突擊獵物嘅地方,而事實係,就算係家貓都成日都鍾意伏喺啲高嘅地方(例如係樹枝上面)再跳落嚟,由上面攻擊佢哋想捉嘅獵物-呢點同一樣[87]。當一隻貓由高嘅地方跳落嚟嗰陣時,佢會條件反射噉用佢好犀利嘅平衡力同埋彈性扭動佢嘅身體,改正自己嘅姿勢,等自己可以腳落地先-呢種就係所謂嘅貓改正反射(Cat righting reflex)[88],而且每一隻貓都有佢特色嘅姿勢改正方式。要睇到呢種反射,嗰隻貓要由 0.9 (3 )至 3 米(大約 9 尺 8 吋)嘅高度跳落嚟-但係如果超過咗呢個高度嘅話,隻貓係會受傷嘅[89]。順帶一提,因為呢種反射主要係靠後肢、唔使用條尾嘅,所以就算係冇尾嘅貓(好似係萌島貓噉)都有呢種能力[90]

對於貓點解鍾意伏喺高嘅地方,另外一個可能嘅解釋係,高度幫到隻貓睇勻嗮佢成個地頭,幫到佢視察自己地盤[87]

貓改正反射喺正常重力同埋冇重力環境嘅示範;貓曉得喺空中改變自己姿勢令到自己可以安全噉落地。

行為[編輯]

一隻睏緊覺嘅貓

晝夜節律[編輯]

睏覺嘅時間通常長過其他動物嘅。一隻貓一般一日大約會睏 12 到 16 個鐘頭,平均一日 13 到 14 個鐘左右,而有啲貓甚至仲會一日睏成廿個鐘。啲貓睏覺好多時都唔會睏得好淰,通常都係輕輕噉睏一陣,一日睏幾次噉嘅。佢哋睏覺嗰陣會有快速動眼兼且肌肉會抽搐-噉樣應該表示佢哋曉發夢[91]

貓無論喺日頭定夜晚都會活動,通常喺夜晚嗰陣會活躍啲[92][93]。一隻貓嘅晝夜節律好有彈性,佢哋曉配合佢哋周圍嘅人類嘅活動時間嚟調節自己嘅節律-例如係如果主人因為夜晚冇噉得閒,鍾意喺朝頭早陪佢玩嘅話,隻貓多數會調節自己嘅節律嚟喺嗰段時間活躍啲[94]

衛生習慣[編輯]

近睇一隻貓條脷;佢上面嗰啲凸出嚟嘅絲狀乳頭令到條脷好似一把梳噉。
一隻虎斑貓喺度用條脷清理自己啲毛。

貓好鍾意乾淨。佢哋會用大量嘅時間嚟用舔自己毛皮嘅方法去清潔自己[95]。佢哋啲口水好似清潔劑噉,而且貓條脷上面有好多向後凸出、大約 500 微米長嘅尖位(學名叫絲狀乳頭;Papillae)。絲狀乳頭帶有角蛋白(Keratin)[96],呢種物質令到啲絲狀乳頭有剛硬性,所以隻貓條脷可以好似一把噉挖同清走匿喺毛入面嗰啲污糟嘢。

但係貓嘅衛生習慣都可以對佢哋自身做成問題:某啲貓(尤其係啲毛比較長或者甩毛甩得比較勁嘅品種)喺清潔自己嗰陣間唔鐘會唔覺意吞咗自己啲毛落肚,累積起上嚟會喺個胃入面形成啲毛團。呢啲毛團通常係好似腸仔噉嘅形狀嘅,每碌大約係 2 至 3 厘米(0.8 至 1.2 吋)長。貓通常都會識得嘗試嘔返呢啲毛團出嚟,但係佢哋有機會會阻礙隻貓嘅消化,嚴重起上嚟仲有得塞住隻貓條腸-手尾可以好長[97]。如果想防止毛團形成,主人可以定時定候用梳等嘅工具幫隻貓做清潔。

貓會用條脷幫同伴清潔身體,呢種係佢哋維繫感情嘅方式之一。

社交[編輯]

貓之間[編輯]

野貓通常係獨行嘅,而家貓打獵嗰陣都仲興單獨噉行動[98],但係家貓係一種群居動物,彼此之間有住好複雜嘅社交活動。一隻家貓好多時會或多或少噉同佢接觸到嘅貓(例如係佢主人啲隔離鄰舍養嘅貓)組成一啲貓際網絡,而流浪貓甚至乎會成大柞噉喺嘢食來源附近嗰度聚居,啲乸嘅仲會合作揾食或者做其他嘢[99][100]。呢啲貓群體入面會有階級之分-某啲貓會高級過其他貓,仲可能會出現高級貓哈低級貓嘅情況。

貓係一種有地盤性嘅動物。每隻貓都會有屬於佢嘅地盤,而地盤嘅大細可以視乎好多因素而定:一隻貓嘅地盤通常係以佢屋企做中心幾百米內嘅地方,而一隻有性交能力嘅公嘅地盤會大過平均嘅好多-呢啲貓公嘅地盤大細會係貓乸嘅 10 倍左右,而且可能會同好幾隻貓乸嘅地盤重疊[101]。貓會用好多方法嚟劃地盤,好似係噴小便喺自己地盤度、將自己塊面啲腺嘅分泌物捽喺啲嘢上面、或者係留低啲大便喺度[101]。喺地盤之間嘅就係中立空間,啲貓會喺呢啲空間進行社交活動。但係地盤就係唔可以隨便侵犯嘅:一隻貓一旦見到其他貓走咗入自己地盤,就會嘗試將對方趕走;響呢種衝突一開始嗰陣,隻地盤受入侵嘅貓會用𥇣住個入侵者等嘅方法諗住將後者嚇走,而如果個入侵者唔肯走,衝突會升級,兩隻貓可能會郁手打交。

同其他動物[編輯]

一隻貓同一隻阿拉斯加雪橇對望;兩隻動物明顯冇打交嘅意慾。

貓同人類共處嘅歷史唔短。貓進化適應咗呢種生活,令到佢哋好習慣同人類相處,會親近人類。由習性學嘅角度嚟睇,一隻貓嘅主人角色有啲似隻貓嘅阿媽[102],一隻家貓就算大個咗,佢嘅角色都仲係有些少似貓仔[103],例如係一隻貓想問主人攞嘢食嗰陣會發出高音嘅喵喵叫,有少少似人類蘇蝦仔高音嘅聲,呢種叫聲令到人類更加想照顧佢哋-係一種行為上嘅幼態延續(Neoteny)。

另一方面,啲大眾媒體係就係好興將貓同狗描繪成天敵,但係查實如果一個主人有好好噉將佢養嘅貓同狗介紹俾對方識嘅話,兩種動物係絕對有得和平共處嘅[104]

溝通[編輯]

家貓識得用好多唔同嘅方法溝通,好似係發出各種嘅聲,連都有分好幾種[105](相比之下,流浪貓比較靜)[106]。佢哋仲有好多唔同嘅身體語言,會用耳仔同尾、腳嗰啲肉墊、身體放鬆嘅程度等嘅身體部份同埋動作嚟到表達自己嘅情緒,當中耳仔同條尾喺社交溝通上零舍緊要[107][108]:一條向上申嘅尾係貓向其他貓展現友好嘅方式,而放平咗嘅耳仔就表示敵意;條尾向上申呢個動作仲會顯示隻貓喺佢個貓際網絡入面嘅地位-同地位低嘅個體比起上嚟,地位高嘅個體會冇噉興做呢個動作;除咗噉,掂鼻哥都係貓常見嘅互相打招呼方式,啲貓做完之後仲可能會開始幫對方清潔身體。

唐話書寫嗰度,貓嘅叫聲一般都係用「」呢個唐字嚟表達嘅。呢個字喺廣東話入面讀做「meu1」、普通話入面讀做「miāo」,而喺其他唐話入面都有各自嘅讀音;喺唐話以外,日本話係興用「にゃあ」(日文羅馬字nyaa)嚟表達貓叫聲嘅,美式英文用「Meow」,英式英文用「miaow」,而法國話就用 「miaou」。

貓喺覺得滿足-例如係俾主人温柔噉摸、放鬆咗、食飽肚、或者係啲貓仔啱啱飲完奶-嗰陣會發出喉音(Purr),咕噜咕噜噉叫。呢種係種好有趣嘅現象,而佢哋係點發出呢種聲目前仲係一個謎[109][110]。其他貓科動物當中某啲都曉得發出類似喉音嘅聲,但係唔似得貓噉會用佢嚟表達舒服[111],而佢點解會進化出嚟,有學者話噉可能係因為佢係啲貓阿媽用佢嚟安撫自己啲貓仔用嘅聲。

貓啲表情[編輯]

打交[編輯]

貓有陣時會打交,尤其係啲貓公[112]。流浪貓打交嘅原因通常都係有兩隻貓公想要爭一隻貓乸嘅芳心,而喺呢啲情況之下,通常大隻啲嗰隻貓公會打贏[113];貓乸亦都有機會會為咗保護自己啲仔女而郁手;而無論公定乸,流浪貓成日都會為咗要爭地盤而打交。有主人嘅貓之所以要做絕育,就正正係因為絕育會令到打交嘅行為減少甚至冇嗮(即係表示呢種行為應該係同性荷爾蒙有關嘅),令到隻貓易養啲[114]

當一隻貓打算郁手攻擊嗰陣,佢會用好多身體語言嚟令到自己望落大隻啲-好似係佢啲毛會豎起或者係個身會弓起呀噉;佢對耳仔會耷低同埋向後,噉係為咗避免比較脆弱嘅內耳喺打交嗰陣整親,兼且仲可以等佢喺集中精神向前衝嗰陣聽到後面有乜嘢聲-防止有啲乜嘢由背後偷襲;隻貓仲會好大聲噉發出嘶嘶聲同埋露佢啲牙出嚟,進一步令到自己望落再得人驚啲。啲貓郁手嗰陣時多數會嘗試用自己嘅前爪捉實對手同埋猛噉扻佢塊面或者個身,又有可能會用牙咬佢[115]

貓嘅打交方式聽落好似幾凶狠噉,但係查實啲貓打交好少可會造成乜嘢嚴重嘅傷害,因為啲貓打交通常都唔打得好耐,輸嗰隻貓喺佢塊面或者耳仔俾對手搲多兩三嘢之後就會逃之夭夭。打交打得最猛烈嘅要算係爭緊交配權嘅貓公,佢哋有啲會打到出爪,並且對對手嘅身體造成貫穿性嘅傷害,所以喺性上面活躍嘅貓公普遍都會習慣打交,而且好多時仲會打到周身周面都係疤痕[116]。如果有一隻貓打交打到流咗血,噉佢個傷口可能會受細菌感染,如果就噉擺喺度唔理佢,呢啲感染嚴重起上嚟有機會導致死亡,而且啲貓打交咬對方嗰陣仲可以傳播某啲病毒[117],所以如果隻貓噉唔好彩打到流咗血,主人就要小心留意。

一隻大嘅暹羅貓喺度將佢捉到嗰隻老鼠掟嚟掟去。貓好興攞佢哋要殺嘅獵物嚟玩。

獵食[編輯]

貓係一種真正嘅食肉動物,主要獵食啲細隻嘅嘢,好似係雀仔同埋包括老鼠等嘅嚙齒目動物呀噉[118],所以啲人養貓目的好多時係為咗想要控制害蟲[119][120],但係如果冇主人睇住,佢哋嘅獵食行為可以對野生動物做成危害:例如喺美國,家貓就係野生動物嘅其中一種主要獵食者,估計佢哋每年殺死 14 至 37 億隻雀仔同埋 69 至 207 億隻哺乳類[121]。呢啲數字當中主要嘅起因係喺美國土地上流動嘅 8 億隻流浪貓-有主人養嘅貓因為啲主人興俾佢哋戴啷啷(啷啷會令到其他動物容易聽到隻貓行近)或者唔俾佢哋出夜街,所以好少可有機會捉到獵物[122]

貓嘅獵食策略主要有得分做兩種:一係就主動噉跟蹤同埋偷襲隻獵物,再唔係就匿喺草叢等嘅嘢入面再等隻獵物自己行埋嚟先捉佢[123]。目前嘅研究顯示,貓似乎仲識得按照佢住嗰頭嘅獵物嘅品種嚟決定用邊種策略-如果係要捉一啲曉喺地下掘窿住嘅嚙齒目嗰陣就會喺後者個巢外面等,而捉雀仔嗰陣就主動噉跟蹤同埋偷襲。

貓嘅獵食行為當中一個好出名嘅特徵係,隻貓會好似「玩」緊佢隻獵物噉,捉到佢之後再放走,跟手即刻再捉返佢-呢種行為望落好似特登折磨緊隻獵物噉,令到好多貓主人覺得唔舒服。查實呢種行為嘅目的主要係因為隻貓需要慢慢噉削弱隻獵物,等佢夠弱先至郁手殺,噉先可以確保到隻獵物嘅掙扎唔會整親自己[124]

貓嘅獵食行為另一個奇異嘅地方係,佢哋好興將佢哋殺咗嘅獵物攞俾佢哋嘅主人睇。至於啲貓點解要噉做,學者有好多種諗法:習性學家 Paul Leyhausen 主張,啲貓噉做係因為佢哋當咗佢哋主人係佢哋貓際網絡嘅一份子,喺呢啲網絡入面,貓不嬲都興送啲嘢食做禮物俾佢哋當中最高地位嘅個體-而喺有人養嘅貓嘅心目中,呢啲「最高地位嘅個體」就係佢哋嘅主人[125];另一方面,人類學家兼動物學家 Desmond Morris 就喺佢 1986 出嗰本《Catwatching》(個名直譯係「睇貓」)入面主張,當貓將啲殺咗嘅獵物帶返屋企嗰陣,佢哋係喺度嘗試教佢哋嘅人類點樣打獵,就好似佢哋有時會餵啲老弱嘅貓或者教啲唔識嘢嘅後生貓打獵噉[126][127]-之但係對於 Desmond Morris 個假說有人就反駁話,連唔會點湊仔嘅貓公都有「攞獵物俾主人睇」嘅行為,所以呢種行為唔會係出於「想照顧後生」。但係總之無論如何,一般都認為如果隻貓會攞死咗嘅獵物俾主人睇,噉即係表示佢對主人有好感。

[編輯]

14 個禮拜大嘅貓仔喺度玩打交。
內文: 貓嘅玩同埋玩具

家貓,尤其係啲細貓仔,不嬲都出嗮名鍾意玩。佢哋玩嗰陣嘅動作有啲似獵食用嘅動作,所以對於幫助啲貓仔學跟蹤同捕捉獵物嚟講好緊要[128]。除咗噉,貓又會同其他貓或者人類玩打交,嚟到練習打交嘅技術或者幫到訓練自己唔好驚同其他動物郁手。

就係因為玩同埋獵食好似,所以貓鍾意玩同埋捉一啲形狀大細似佢哋獵物嘅玩具(尤其係喺佢哋肚餓嗰陣[129]),好似係一啲細舊有毛又識得郁嘅玩具,但係佢哋玩起玩具上嚟好快就會玩厭想轉[130]。除咗噉,激光筆亦都係一種常見嘅貓玩具,主人會用激光筆射出嚟嘅細粒光點嚟摟隻貓去追同捉。

繁殖[編輯]

兩隻貓喺度交配;呢個係貓交配嘅標準體位

交配[編輯]

貓乸一年會發情幾次(Polyestrous),發情通常會喺春天開始,秋天尾完結。喺呢段期間,貓乸通常每兩個禮拜會發情一次,每次持續 4 至 7 日[131]。當一隻貓乸發情嗰陣,會有好幾隻貓公想同佢交配。呢啲貓公會打交,而打嬴咗嗰隻就會得到隻貓乸嘅芳心。一開始嗰陣,隻貓乸通常會拒絕嗰隻貓公,之後先至會慢慢噉對佢開放。喺交配過程要完嗰陣,隻貓公會將佢條-呢條朘上面有 120 至 150 條大約 1 毫米長嘅向後嘅倒刺-掹出嚟,條嘢上面嗰啲刺會刮到隻貓乸嘅陰道,刺激到佢排卵同埋令到佢大聲嗌。而且呢啲刺仲起到一個緊要嘅作用:清走隻貓乸嘅陰道入面嘅其他貓公留低嘅精子[132]。做完之後,隻貓乸會去洗乾淨佢個女陰,而如果呢個時候有隻貓公嘗試摟佢交配,隻貓乸通常會郁手攻擊佢,要等起碼 20 至 30 分鐘,隻貓乸清潔好之後個過程先會再嚟。

排卵未必係一次交配就刺激得到嘅,所以一隻貓乸未必會佗第一隻同佢交配嘅公嘅細路[133],再加上一隻貓乸發起情上嚟會同好多隻貓公交配,所以同一竇嘅貓仔可能有唔同老豆。

佗仔同湊仔[編輯]

一隻出咗世 3 個鐘頭嘅貓仔

隻貓乸如果大咗肚,佢佗仔通常會佗 64 至 67 日,平均要過 66 日先至生得[134]。一般嚟講,一隻貓乸一次會生 3 至 5 隻貓仔,通常第一次生嗰陣會生少啲。啲貓仔喺跟住落嚟嗰 6 至 7 個禮拜會由佢哋阿媽嗰度飲奶,斷咗奶之後阿媽跟手就會教佢哋點樣獵食,而啲貓仔喺 12 個禮拜大嗰陣時就算係大個,要準備離開阿媽自己揾食[135]。貓乸一般要 5 至 10 個月時間先至會完全成熟有性能力,而貓公就需要 5 至 7 個月(呢個數可以因品種而異)。一隻貓乸每年可以生到 2 至 3 竇貓仔,所以一隻貓乸一世貓喺佢有繁殖能力嗰 10 年期間有得生到 150 隻貓仔噉多。

絕育[編輯]

當啲貓仔 7 個禮拜大嗰陣就可以做手術絕育嚟到限制佢哋嘅繁殖[136]。呢啲手術仲可以幫到手令到隻貓減少做某啲(貓主人通常唔鍾意嘅)行為,例如係打交、公嘅用小便霸地盤、或者係乸嘅用叫聲吸引有性能力嘅公嚟佢度。傳統嚟講,絕育手術多數都係喺隻貓 6 至 9 個月大嗰陣做嘅,但係近年啲貓主人開始興早啲喺青春期嗰陣做[137]。喺美國,大約 80% 嘅家貓都做咗絕育[138]

貓仔[編輯]

生態[編輯]

一隻企喺雪地上面嘅貓;貓喺好多唔同環境之下都有能力生存。

居住地[編輯]

貓係一種興住喺都市嗰度嘅物種,喺全世界都可以揾到。佢哋嘅適應能力極之高,美國嘅遺傳學家 Stephen James O'Brien 就指出咗呢點,話貓喺進化上嚟講係一個好成功嘅物種。佢係噉講嘅:「貓係進化過程當中一個好有魅力嘅物種;佢哋可以住喺最高嘅山同埋最熱嘅沙漠。」[139]-貓喺南極洲以外嘅各大陸都有,而喺 131 個主要嘅島嶼當中 118 個嘅上面都可以揾到佢哋嘅腳印,就連響好似係克革倫群島(Kerguelen Islands)呢啲噉偏僻嘅島嗰度都揾到佢哋。由進化嘅角度嚟睇,呢啲事實表示咗貓嘅身體嘅設計好叻適應同生存-呢兩樣嘢喺進化上係好緊要嘅特徵[140][141]

流浪貓有能力住喺森林草原凍原、沿海地區、農地、市區、以至濕地嗰度都得[142],而且佢哋甚至乎係有得住喺冇人嘅島仔上面(即係話佢哋可以唔使依賴人類生存)[143]。好似係非洲野貓Felis silvestris lybica)或者係阿拉伯沙漠貓Felis margarita)等嘅家貓近親都係住喺極之惡劣嘅沙漠環境嗰度嘅;而頭先提到,家貓嘅身體都有某啲啱住喺沙漠嘅功能。同時,貓嘅適應力亦都搞到佢俾人列咗做「世界上最衰嘅入侵性物種之一」[144]

流浪貓[編輯]

一隻流浪嘅農場貓
內文: 流浪貓

流浪貓係指返咗去野生狀態嘅家貓。佢哋好多時都因為唔熟人類所以對人類有戒心,並且喺市區或者郊區嗰度四圍流浪[145]。冇人知世界上有幾多隻流浪貓,但係估計淨係美國就有 2 千 5 百至 6 千萬隻。流浪貓有啲會單獨自己住,但係佢哋多數都會喺嘢食來源嘅四周圍聚集,形成一啲流浪貓社群[146],而呢啲社群好多時會啲有義工喺度幫手照顧啲流浪貓。比較出名嘅流浪貓社群包括咗喺意大利羅馬羅馬鬥獸場周圍聚集嗰柞[147]

喺一啲本嚟就有好多貓嘅地方-例如係西歐-嗰度,似乎流浪貓嘅數量喺度增加緊,兼且仲要係無視佢哋四圍環境嘅支持能力(例如係嘢食夠唔夠)噉增加緊[148][149]:喺瑞典南部,有一份 1982 年做嘅研究就話佢哋啲貓嘅密度高到有成每平方公里 2,000 隻。呢種現象可能係因為呢啲高度發展嘅地區太多嘢食,例如係有寵物主人走去餵流浪貓或者係啲貓走去食一啲人類食唔嗮揼咗嘅嘢。例如係英國就有份研究話佢哋啲貓當中有好多淨係當打獵係一種「消遣」(而唔係佢哋靠嚟揾食生存嘅活動)。

對流浪貓嘅反應[編輯]

社會大眾對流浪貓嘅意見有唔細嘅分歧,有啲人覺得佢哋係周圍走嘅寵物,又有啲人覺得佢哋係好似害蟲噉嘅生物[150]。但係無論如何,事實係,太多流浪貓存在會造成好多問題,所以啲人通常都會想限制自己住嗰個城市或者區域入面嘅流浪貓數量。當中一種常見嘅方法係所謂嘅「捉-絕育-放生」法(Trap-neuter-return):即係將啲流浪貓捉住,同佢哋做絕育手術,跟手打埋防瘋狗症等病嘅疫苗,再將佢哋放生[151]。而喺臨放生一隻貓之前,個獸醫會用某啲特定嘅方法喺隻貓身上做記號,等跟住落嚟處理佢嘅獸醫或者其他人員知佢做咗呢個手續。呢個手續可以提高流浪貓嘅壽命,而且好似係打交等嘅行為問題會減少。

一隻擔住隻嘅貓

對生態系嘅影響[編輯]

到咗今日,對於貓嘅獵食行為會點樣影響佢嗰啲獵物物種喺野外嘅數量,都仲係未有乜嘢科學性嘅數據。就算係主人餵得佢好飽嘅貓都有可能會自發噉得閒就走去打獵,佢哋主要捉啲細隻嘅哺乳類,又會捉雀仔、兩棲類爬蟲類魚類、同埋無脊椎動物[152]。家貓嘅獵食行為可能幫咗手減少喺市區嗰度嘅雀仔數量,雖然幫咗幾多就唔知[153];而喺野外,人類嘅各種活動好多時會搞到有流浪貓入侵一啲佢哋之前未去過嘅生態系,嚴重起上嚟甚至乎有機會令到一啲本地嘅生物絕種。喺好多情況之下,控制或者減少非本地嘅流浪貓數量幫到啲本地動物回復[154],但係都唔一定:貓嘅存在可以控制啲老鼠嘅數量,而老鼠好多時會食雀仔嘅蛋或者佢哋啲仔;喺呢個情況之下,流浪貓嘅存在會壓制到老鼠對雀蛋嘅侵害-可能反而變相保護到某啲瀕危嘅鳥類[155]

喺一啲受隔離嘅土地-好似係澳大拉西亞洲(Australasia)-上面,好多時都冇乜本土嘅中等嗮士嘅四腳獵食動物(例如係其他貓科動物),而喺呢種情況之下,流浪貓對本地小型動物嘅影響通常會更加壞[156]。好似係紐西蘭鴞鸚鵡(Kakapo)同埋澳洲草原袋鼠(Bettong),就因為自古受隔離所以比較「天真」啲。噉樣講嘅意思係話,呢啲物種因為接觸外界少,所以冇噉識應對一啲喺外界常見嘅兇猛動物[157],而佢哋嘅好多特徵都反映咗呢樣嘢[158]:呢啲長期受隔離而變得「天真」嘅物種因為自古就冇乜天敵,所以好多時繁殖率低啲而且佗仔又要佗耐啲-呢點令到佢哋冇噉能夠增加數量嚟對抗新嚟嘅獵食者[159];而當中係雀鳥嘅物種又好多時唔識飛或者飛得冇噉叻,而飛對於雀鳥迴避獵食者嚟講又好緊要[160];除咗噉,佢哋啲行為好多時都好「天真」,例如係當中有啲根本唔知乜嘢係獵食者(所以甚至會主動行埋去啲貓嗰度)[161]或者興喺地面嗰度起巢(而唔係好似一啲慣咗應對獵食者嘅動物噉,喺樹上高或者山崖呢啲難入侵嘅地方起巢)[162]。一旦有貓呢種噉勁嘅獵食者突然之間出現,呢啲噉「天真」嘅物種就未必能夠及時適應得到,而事實係,流浪貓喺過去經已試過好多次搞到一啲本地動物物種變瀕危甚至乎絕種[163]

對雀鳥嘅影響[編輯]

一隻食緊隻家麻雀嘅黑貓

貓係好多雀鳥嘅天然獵食者。英國嘅估計就話貓搞到每年有 6 億 4 千 8 百萬隻雀鳥死亡,而一份喺 2012 年做嘅研究就話流浪貓喺美國每年都殺死幾十億隻雀鳥[164]。當中某啲物種嘅雀鳥特別受到貓威脅:例如係家麻雀就估計佢哋死親有 30% 都係因為家貓引致嘅,而知更雀Erithacus rubecula)同埋林岩鷚Prunella modularis)就死親都有 31% 係因為貓嘅獵食[165]。喺北美洲嘅某啲地區,好似係郊狼(Coyote)呢啲大型啲嘅食肉動物可以壓制到流浪貓嘅數量,所以會間接令到貓對雀仔嘅影響減少,但係都仲有影響[166]

喺啲島仔上面,情況就有少少唔同。喺呢啲地方,啲貓食嘅嘢可能有成 60% 都係嚟自啲雀鳥[167],而事實係,貓的確係好多島上雀鳥物種變瀕危或者絕種嘅元凶[168][169]紐西蘭鶇鶲(South Island piopio)、奧克蘭秋沙鴨(New Zealand merganser)、同埋鵜燕(Common diving petrel)都係噉,當中最極端嘅例子要數斯蒂芬島異鷯(Lyall's wren;紐西蘭一種唔識飛嘅雀鳥)-佢啱啱俾人發現咗幾年就經已俾啲貓獵食到絕咗種[170][171]。之但係喺大部份嘅情況之下,一啲島仔上面嘅雀鳥數量跌唔怪得嗮啲貓,而喺某啲個案入面,清走啲貓反而造成咗「放獵效應」[172]:壓制頂尖食肉獸嘅數量搞到下級啲嘅食肉獸數量多咗,反而殘害咗呢啲下級食肉獸嘅獵食對象-即係話貓會捉同食一啲會食或者殘害雀鳥嘅食肉獸,所以一旦啲貓唔見咗,呢啲食肉獸就更加肆無忌憚,對嗰頭嘅雀鳥嚟講反而仲衰。

同人類嘅相處[編輯]

史前[編輯]

羅浮宮收藏嘅一隻貓木乃伊;古埃及人好尊敬貓,甚至會當貓係人噉樣,將佢哋變做木乃伊

人類喺未有文字歷史嗰陣已經有同貓來往。學界本嚟認為古埃及係人類史上第一次馴養(Domestication;將一種本嚟有野性嘅生物養同改造到啱同人類合作嘅過程)貓嘅地方-喺 3,600 年之前嘅埃及已經有記載同埋描述家貓;但係喺 2004 年,學者響塞浦路斯一個新石器時代嘅墓穴遺址發現咗一個人類同埋一隻貓嘅遺骸,兩者嘅骨頭睏埋一齊,而呢個墓穴有成 9,500 年歷史噉古老[173][174],嗰隻貓好大隻,而且似非洲野貓多過似現代家貓,所以可能係一個過渡物種。好似呢啲噉嘅考古發現再加埋遺傳學嘅研究表示,貓應該係喺人類文明啱啱開始有農業嗰陣響中東新月沃土(The Fertile Crescent;指中東嗰度東至伊拉克西至埃及一連串肥沃嘅土地)嗰度第一次俾人馴養嘅,後尾先至傳咗去塞浦路斯同埃及。

中國呢頭都係好早就有養貓嘅紀錄:由華盛頓大學同埋中國科學院嘅考古學家同古生物學家喺而家嘅中國中部嗰度發現咗 5,300 年前啲人有養貓嘅紀錄。似乎當時係啲農村因為開始儲起啲農作物,吸引咗啲嚙齒目過嚟,貓為咗捉呢啲嚙齒目嚟食就跟住一齊過埋嚟,話噉快貓就因為識捉走啲嚙齒目-間接保護咗啲農作物-而開始咗同人類有友好嘅來往[175]

古埃及[編輯]

埃及神話嘅女神芭絲特

喺公元前嘅人貓來往當中最出名嘅要數古埃及人對貓嘅崇拜:古埃及人相信貓係一種神聖嘅動物,而古埃及嘅女神芭絲特(Bastet)就係以貓頭人身嘅形象出現嘅[176],芭絲特傳說專門守護家庭,有時又會變身做一隻威風凜凜嘅獅子乸掌管打仗;佢人氣好高,成個埃及四圍都有供奉佢嘅神殿。因為貓喺古埃及嘅神聖地位,殺貓對古埃及人嚟講係一種絕對受禁止嘅行為,而且佢哋好尊重佢哋啲貓,古希臘嘅歷史學家希羅多德(Herodotus)就紀綠咗話喺古埃及嘅社會入面,如果有一家人養嗰隻貓死咗,佢哋冚家都會好傷心噉哀悼佢兼且剃眼眉;佢哋仲會將死咗嗰隻貓嘅遺體帶去神聖嘅城市布巴斯提斯(Bubastis)嗰度保存同埋葬落去祝聖咗嘅墳墓嗰度。

古希臘同古羅馬[編輯]

古希臘人同埋古羅馬人似乎極少會養貓[177]。古希臘人嘅文獻嗰度都好少可有提起貓,淨係得阿里士多德(Aristotle)寫書紀錄有關動物嘅嘢嗰陣提咗吓貓乸同好多隻貓公交配嘅行為。而頭先提到嘅希羅多德淨係見過野貓,佢喺見到古埃及人同貓嘅密切來往嗰陣表示覺得好震驚。就算係喺打後少少嘅時代,古希臘人同古羅馬人都仲係寧願養做寵物都唔養貓,而且佢哋仲覺得用鼬殺啲嚙齒目有效過用貓殺。

但係古希臘人遲吓就開始對貓有興趣:佢哋後尾有將古埃及嘅芭絲特信仰引入,並且將芭絲特嘅某啲特徵融入去佢哋嗰個月光女神阿提蜜絲(Artemis)嗰度,將阿提蜜絲描繪成好似芭絲特噉同貓有住特殊嘅啦掕[178]。例如係喺羅馬詩人奧維德(Ovid)嘅著作《變形記》(Metamorphoses)入面,當一眾天神走佬去埃及嗰度並且化身做動物嗰陣時,女神黛安娜(Diana;即係羅馬版嘅阿提蜜絲)就係揀咗化身做一隻貓嘅。

喺古羅馬嘅後期,貓取代嗮其他動物,成為最受歡迎嘅捉害蟲寵物,據講主要係因為啲羅馬人覺得貓比較得意而且捉起老鼠上嚟落力啲。

歐洲中世紀及打後[編輯]

中世紀嘅歐洲,歐洲人相當之鍾意貓。由 4 世紀羅馬帝國改國教基督教嗰陣開始,歐洲人慢慢噉改咗信基督教,唔再拜啲舊嘅天神,但係佢哋好興將一啲以前拜開嘅神嘅特徵加落去一啲基督教人物入面。例如係聖母瑪利亞就有少少俾某啲歐洲人攞咗嚟做阿提蜜絲嘅代替品,俾人描繪成同貓有特殊啦掕:嗰陣時嘅歐洲人喺畫畫描繪聖母領報或者聖家嗰陣好多時會順手加返隻貓落幅圖入面;而根據意大利嘅民間傳說,喺聖母生耶穌落嚟嗰晚,白冷城有隻處女貓乸生咗隻貓仔。喺後嚟歐洲人嘅大航海時代(Age of Discovery)嗰時,佢哋帶咗好多貓上船(一來為咗要清除船上面嗰啲害蟲,二來兼用佢哋嚟做帶嚟好運嘅吉祥物)。啲歐洲人跟手就坐住呢啲船四圍去,令到貓去勻全世界。

現代[編輯]

叮噹係風靡全亞洲嘅卡通人物,佢個設計就係基於貓嘅。

到咗廿一世紀,貓經已係世界上最多人養嘅寵物之一,據講全世界有超過 5 億隻。養貓無分男女:雖然啲西人好多時都覺得貓係女人先至會養嘅[179],但係根據一個 2007 年做嘅調查顯示,喺美國,男人同女人養貓嘅比率一樣噉高[180]。就係因為貓噉受歡迎,所以貓嘅形象會俾人攞嚟整好多文化產品或者商品,例如係卡通人物同毛公仔嘅設計,或者係喺同量子力學相關嘅嘢嗰度代表薛定諤貓(Schrödinger's Cat)嘅概念。

另一方面,亦都有人會攞貓嘅身體部份-即係要殺死隻貓-嚟整一啲嘢,例如係整(每整一件貓皮草褸要殺大約 24 隻貓)[181][182];甚至有人會用貓嘅毛同皮等嚟整手套、同埋樂器呀噉[183];再唔係又有人會攞佢哋嚟食-例如係廣東菜嘅名菜「龍虎鬥」,就係以貓肉同肉做原料煮嘅[184]。但係基本上,要殺貓先至整到嘅產品喺美國、澳洲、同歐盟嗰度家陣已經俾人禁咗[185]

有關貓嘅迷信[編輯]

喺好多嘅文化入面都有一啲對於貓嘅迷信

西方[編輯]

雖然中世紀嘅歐洲人唔少都鍾意貓,但係另一方面佢哋當中有啲就唔係噉覺得,例如係有傳說就話俾黑貓喺面前行過嘅話會行衰運[186],又或者有歐洲人覺得貓係巫術者嘅奴僕,可以增強巫術嘅效果[186]。而喺某啲地方同埋時期,甚至有啲人會捉啲貓攞去燒,例如係喺中世紀嘅法國就有部份嘅人興用燒貓做一種娛樂。據歷史學家 Norman Davies 話:嗰陣時啲歐洲人當中有啲興搞燒貓聚會,會將捉返嚟嘅貓(或者係其他動物,例如狐狸)揼落個大火嗰度,一路大笑一路聽住啲貓慘叫同埋睇住佢哋燒死碳化[187]

東方[編輯]

喺東方嘅文化入面,啲人傳統好多時都信貓係行好運嘅象徵,例如喺中國江南地區就有「貓來富」嘅講法,認為曉自己走嚟嘅貓係吉利嘅意頭,而且招財貓呢樣嘢就係源自於日本嘅。雖然係噉,奇怪嘅係,貓並唔喺十二生肖之內(雖然越南等嘅地區嘅人有將「兔」改做「貓」嘅習俗)。呢一點有好多民間傳說嘗試解釋,例如有啲人就話當時貓同老鼠參加生肖選拔賽跑,佢哋一齊騎咗喺嘅背脊上高,但係老鼠出術將貓推落水,搞到貓嚟唔切見玉帝,做咗第十三名,落選咗生肖(又有版本話係因為老鼠特登唔話個生肖選拔俾貓知,搞到貓出唔到席)。而呢個傳說亦都俾人用嚟解釋貓點解鍾意捉老鼠。日本都有類似嘅傳說,不過唔係賽跑而係宴會。

貓有幾多條命[編輯]

喺科學上嚟講,貓同其他動物一樣,得一條命,但係無論東方定西方,好多文化嘅民間傳說都話貓有好多條命。喺好多地區(包括嶺南)據講係 9 條;喺意大利、德國、巴西、同埋啲講西班牙話嘅地區就話有 7 條 [188][189];而喺土耳其同阿拉伯嘅傳統入面就話有 6 條[190]。呢啲傳說應該係因為貓又快又敏捷,好叻喺有危險嗰陣走佬,又或者係同貓改正反射有關。

常見嘅貓品種[編輯]

睇埋[編輯]

相關嘅動物[編輯]

[編輯]

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