捕食

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
上圖:單獨捕食北極熊殺同食緊一隻海豹
下圖:合作捕食-羣螞蟻殺同食一隻沙蟬

捕食粵拼bou6 sik6英文predation),粵文又有叫獵食lip6 sik6,係生態學入面生物之間互動嘅一種方式[1]。喺呢種互動方式入面,互動嘅其中一方會去捉對方,殺死後者同埋將後者食落肚;食對方嘅係所謂嘅捕食者,而畀人食嗰方就係所謂嘅獵物。如果有種生物 A 硬係會畀另一種生物 B 捕食,噉 B 就係 A 嘅天敵tin1 dik6[e 1]

老虎獅子蜘蛛等嘅動物都係出名嘅捕食者。例如兔仔噉,狼硬係會例如捉同殺兔仔,殺咗之後將兔仔食落肚,狼係呢段關係入面嘅捕食者,兔仔係獵物,而因為狼硬係會捕食兔仔,所以狼係兔仔嘅天敵。

定義[編輯]

寄生蜂(左)嘗試喺條毛蟲(右)身上生蛋;寄生蜂啲寄主會反抗,有時仲會喺反抗途中殺死隻寄生蜂。
睇埋:覓食寄生食肉動物同埋食腐動物

生態學上,要定義捕食呢隻詞查實有啲撈絞。

例子:寄生蜂

寄生蜂[e 2]係指膜翅目細腰亞目當中好幾昆蟲;佢哋最出名嘅係會靠寄生嚟生存同繁殖-寄生蜂乸會將蛋生喺第啲節肢動物(寄主)體內,常見嘅寄主有毛蟲甲蟲蜘蛛呀噉;啲幼蟲出咗世就會食寄主嘅肉維生;當中有啲物種嘅寄生蜂幼蟲,仲會暫時留住寄主條命,甚至識得擾亂寄主嘅神經系統令寄主保護佢哋,寄主要等到啲幼蟲變咗成蟲先會死[2]

一般認為,好似寄生蜂呢種寄生做法,理應要同「捕食」區分開[3]

2022 年嘅不列顛百科全書係噉描述捕食[4]

粵文翻譯:捕食,喺動物行為上,係指追、捉同殺動物嚟食。捕食性嘅動物可以係獨行嘅,好似噉,又可以係成羣噉捕食嘅,好似噉。

一般嚟講,一串行為要有齊

  1. :捉一隻生勾勾嘅獵物,
  2. :親手殺死隻獵食,
  3. :再食隻獵物嘅肉,唔一定係自己食,例如阿爸阿媽成日會捉同殺獵物,然後攞啲肉畀仔女食;

三步驟,先算得上係「捕食」-

... 呀噉。好似寄生蜂噉「捉第啲動物,但唔會即刻殺」嘅寄生行為,就唔合符上面對「捕食」嘅定義。

仲有一點要留意嘅係,捕食有異於食腐[e 3]:食腐係指食一啲已經死咗嘅生物;例如禿鷹就出晒名成日會搵啲動物嘅死屍嚟食;嚴格噉講,捕食一定係特指有齊捉殺食三步嘅行為,而好似禿鷹噉嘅食腐行為,少噉咗,定義上都屬於捕食[5]

一群禿鷹搵到隻鬣狗嘅死屍嚟食;喺班禿鷹嚟到之前,隻鬣狗已經死咗,班禿鷹並冇「捉同殺」隻鬣狗-班禿鷹做緊嘅嘢係食腐而唔係捕食。

點捉獵物[編輯]

睇埋:打獵

捕食者可以靠「用乜方法捉獵物」嚟分類。

追趕式[編輯]

內文:追趕式捕食

追趕式[e 4]係最簡單直接嗰種捕食方法,指隻捕食者追趕隻獵物。如果隻獵物以直線跑,噉隻捕食者淨係需要跑得快過隻獵物,而如果隻獵物走佬途中掟彎,隻捕食者就要有夠快嘅反應更改自己路線;包括人類海豚殺人鯨同埋蜻蜓都屬追趕式捕食者。追趕式捕食者有好多策略可以採用[6][7]

  • 齋靠速度:好似係獵豹[e 5]噉,就係出咗名嘅純速度型捕食者,佢哋冇乜嘢叻,最大嘅長處就係「快」-據報佢哋全力衝刺嗰陣速度可以去到時速 93 km 咁高,係陸上動物之冠,啲獵物全速跑都唔夠獵豹咁快,所以就會畀獵豹捉住。
  • 鬼祟接近:而家想像隻捕食者身上有保護色,獵物難以睇到佢,噉隻捕食者可以靜靜雞伏喺(例如)草入面行近獵物,等到距離有咁上下近,隻捕食者就一嘢開始追趕,就算隻獵物全速跑嗰時有能力擺脫隻捕食者,佢都有可能因為受到突襲而嚟唔切加到最高速,然後就畀隻捕食者追到;好似老虎[e 6]就出名成日用呢種做法捕食[8]
  • 成群追趕:[e 7]就好興成群打獵;齋講體能嘅話,狼(以捕食性嘅哺乳類嚟講)唔算最出眾-佢哋速度比唔上獵豹(狼全速跑嗰陣,速度據報頂晒攏得嗰時速 64 km [9]),而且又冇老虎或者jan2咁大隻咁肌肉強壯[註 1];不過狼又有一樣嘢係勁過獵豹、老虎同熊嘅,就係狼好識得團隊行動-想像家吓兩隻狼一齊追住隻駝鹿噉跑,一隻喺獵物左邊追,另一隻喺獵物右邊追,噉隻獵物轉左定轉右都會畀隻狼一嘢撲上去咬佢,畀狼咬中就好大機會失平衡跌低,跌低咗就會即刻有幾隻狼齊齊撲上去咬佢-等如實死;而喺現實,狼往往會起碼三四隻一齊追住隻獵物嚟咬[10]
  • 堅持式[e 8]:會用堅持式策略嘅獵食者通常係跑得唔快,但耐力勁兼且有返咁上下聰明嘅;呢啲獵食者冇能力齋靠速度捉住獵物,所以打獵嗰陣佢哋會靠跑一陣一陣嘅移動模式,跟實喺隻獵物身後唔遠嘅地方;呢啲獵食者跑唔快,途中可能會畀隻獵物走甩一陣,但佢哋夠聰明,好快就可以靠跟住隻獵物嘅腳印或者留低嘅大便等嘅痕跡追上去-呢點令到隻獵物冇得唞要係噉走佬;於是乎,呢啲獵食者就一路係噉跟住隻獵物,跟成幾個鐘頭咁耐嘅時間;因為呢啲獵食者耐力好,所以最後最先會到走唔郁嘅會係隻獵物-而等到隻獵物走唔郁嘅時候,啲獵食者就可以上前去殺死隻冇力反抗嘅獵物。人類就出名會用呢種策略打獵[11]

埋伏式[編輯]

內文:埋伏式捕食
睇埋:埋伏

埋伏式[e 9]顧名思義係指「埋伏」隻獵物:採用呢種做法嘅捕食者通常有保護色或者類似能力,能夠輕易喺環境入面匿埋,令獵物探測唔到佢;而佢會匿埋喺佢獵物常去嘅地方,等有獵物靠到咁上下近,隻捕食者就會一嘢撲上隻獵物身上或者用第啲方法捉住隻獵物,途中完全唔會有「追趕」出現[12]。埋伏式捕食都可以再細分做唔同類:

  • 「陷阱」:捕食者識得「設陷阱」,意思係指佢哋識建造某啲結構,獵物一旦唔覺意走咗入嚟就會被困,跟住捕食者就可以上前去殺同食獵物;例如蜘蛛喺呢方面就好出名,好多物種嘅蜘蛛都曉織蜘蛛網,用嚟整蜘蛛網嘅絲強韌又有黏性,蝴蝶蜜蜂或者蜻蜓等嘅昆蟲成日都會飛飛吓撞落個網度,一落咗網就郁唔到,就算蜘蛛速度唔快又唔識飛,都可以捉住獵物[13]。亦可以睇睇蟻蛉[e 10]嘅捕食方法。
  • 僞裝[e 11]:捕食者個樣望落似環境入便嘅物件,(好多時視力明顯差過人類嘅)獵物睇唔到捕食者,就會慒盛盛噉行埋捕食者度;例如變色龍[e 12]出咗名曉變色,令自己色水似樹枝或者草等環境入便嘅嘢,細隻嘅昆蟲睇唔到變色龍就有可能會飛入變色龍條長脷嘅「射程」,然後變色龍就會一嘢「射出」條又長又有黏性嘅脷,捉住獵物[14]
  • 攻擊型擬態[e 13]:指捕食者扮成一啲無害嘅生物,令獵物肯行近;例子可以睇吓蘭花螳螂[e 14]嗰種做法。

睇埋[編輯]

2018 年影到隻歐亞水獺[e 16]喺度食緊條。佢將條魚嘅身體撕到爛晒。
我(當時)正喺度沿住一條小溪嘅岸邊散步,行行吓見到隻水獺乸同佢啲仔女。(班水獺)係一幅好得人鍾意嘅景象,我肯定你哋都會同意。而隨住我喺度望,隻水獺阿媽潛咗落水然後再捉住隻肥美嘅三文魚上返嚟,佢(隻水獺阿媽)制服條魚同埋將條魚拉上去一條一半沉咗喺水入面嘅木嗰度。佢一路監生食條魚,食食吓(條魚嘅)身體裂開咗,然後條魚啲流晒出嚟,而到咗今日我仲記得啲卵色水幾咁甜美粉紅。啲水獺仔睇到好開心,仲爭住去食呢樣佳餚。眾紳士呀,大自然其中一樣奇觀。阿媽同仔女開餐食阿媽同仔女。呢單嘢係我第一次學識咩係邪惡宇宙嘅根性就有住邪惡。每個世界都喺痛楚之中旋轉。我同我自己講,如果(宇宙)有咩最高存在體,就要由我哋嚟喺道德上超越佢。

——英格蘭作家泰利·普萊契[e 17][16],可以睇埋邪惡問題嘅概念

註釋[編輯]

  1. 事實係,狼成日都要捉一啲大隻過自己嘅獵物,例如係駝鹿噉。

引述[編輯]

篇文用咗嘅行話或者專有名詞英文(或者其他外語)名如下:

  1. natural enemy
  2. parasitoid wasp
  3. carrion
  4. pursuit
  5. Acinonyx jubatus
  6. Panthera tigris
  7. Canis lupus
  8. persistence hunting
  9. ambush / sit-and-wait
  10. Myrmeleontidae
  11. camouflage
  12. Chamaeleonidae
  13. aggressive mimicry
  14. Hymenopus coronatus
  15. Mantis religiosa
  16. Lutra lutra
  17. Terry Pratchett

篇文引用咗以下呢啲文獻網頁

  1. Caro, Tim (2005). Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals. University of Chicago Press.
  2. Herniou, Elisabeth A.; Huguet, Elisabeth; Thézé, Julien; Bézier, Annie; Periquet, Georges; Drezen, Jean-Michel (2013-09-19). "When parasitic wasps hijacked viruses: genomic and functional evolution of polydnaviruses". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 368 (1626): 20130051.
  3. Gurr, Geoff M.; Wratten, Stephen D.; Snyder, William E. (2012). Biodiversity and Insect Pests: Key Issues for Sustainable Management. John Wiley & Sons. p. 105.
  4. Predation. Encyclopedia Britannica,原文段字係噉嘅:"predation, in animal behaviour, the pursuit, capture, and killing of animals for food. Predatory animals may be solitary hunters, like the leopard, or they may be group hunters, like wolves."
  5. Kane, Adam; Healy, Kevin; Guillerme, Thomas; Ruxton, Graeme D.; Jackson, Andrew L. (2017). "A recipe for scavenging in vertebrates – the natural history of a behaviour". Ecography. 40 (2): 324-334.
  6. Moore, Talia Y.; Biewener, Andrew A. (2015). "Outrun or Outmaneuver: Predator–Prey Interactions as a Model System for Integrating Biomechanical Studies in a Broader Ecological and Evolutionary Context". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 55 (6): 1188-97.
  7. Gazda, S. K.; Connor, R. C.; Edgar, R. K.; Cox, F. (2005). "A division of labour with role specialization in group-hunting bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off Cedar Key, Florida". Proceedings of the Royal Society. 272 (1559): 135-140.
  8. We Now Know Why Tigers' Bright Orange Color Is Actually Excellent Camouflage.
  9. How Fast Can A Wolf Run?. Forest Wildlife.
  10. MacNulty, Daniel; Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W. (2007). "A proposed ethogram of large-carnivore predatory behavior, exemplified by the wolf". Journal of Mammalogy. 88 (3): 595-605.
  11. Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M. (29 March 2016). "Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs". Nature Communications. 7: 11034.
  12. deVries, M. S.; Murphy, E. A. K.; Patek S. N. (2012). "Strike mechanics of an ambush predator: the spearing mantis shrimp". Journal of Experimental Biology. 215 (Pt 24): 4374-4384.
  13. Janetos, Anthony C. (1982). "Foraging tactics of two guilds of web-spinning spiders". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 10 (1): 19-27.
  14. Anderson, C. V.; Deban, S. M. (2010). "Ballistic tongue projection in chameleons maintains high performance at low temperature". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (12): 5495-5499.
  15. Zanette, Liana Y.; Clinchy, Michael (2019-05-06). "Ecology of fear". Current Biology. 29 (9): R309-R313.
  16. Terry Pratchett > Quotes > Quotable Quote. Goodreads,原文段字係噉嘅:"I was walking along the bank of a stream when I saw a mother otter with her cubs, a very endearing sight, I'm sure you'll agree. And even as I watched, the mother otter dived into the water and came up with a plump salmon, which she subdued and dragged onto a half submerged log. As she ate it, while of course it was still alive, the body split and I remember to this day the sweet pinkness of its roes as they spilled out, much to the delight of the baby otters, who scrambled over themselves to feed on the delicacy. One of nature's wonders, gentlemen. Mother and children dining upon mother and children. And that is when I first learned about evil. It is built into the very nature of the universe. Every world spins in pain. If there is any kind of supreme being, I told myself, it is up to all of us to become his moral superior."

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