比較神經心理學

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢

比較神經心理學bei2 gaau3 san4 ging1 sam1 lei5 hok6英文comparative neuropsychology)係指透過研究動物神經系統行為之間嘅關係,增進對人類神經系統同行為嘅了解。

神經細胞量[編輯]

睇埋:神經細胞同埋腦容量

有唔少神經科學家都致力研究唔同動物物種神經細胞之間有乜差異,以及呢啲差異又點樣引致唔同物種喺認知能力等方面嘅差異:絕大多數嘅現存動物物種都有神經細胞,淨係得好似海綿等構造極之簡單嘅動物會冇神經細胞[1];喺有神經系統嘅動物之間,唔同動物嘅神經系統喺規模同結構上可以好唔同,而神經系統嘅規模以及結構同嗰種動物嘅行為以及智能有關,例如喺哺乳類動物當中,腦嘅大細就同智能有正相關[2][3]

物種 全身神經細胞數量 描述
CelegansGoldsteinLabUNC.jpg
秀麗隱桿綫蟲
C. elegans
302
一種行為極之簡單嘅動物;每一條蟲有嘅神經細胞數量同神經細胞之間嘅聯繫都一模一樣,所以神經科學家好興攞佢哋嚟做啲簡單嘅研究[4]
Sea nettles.jpg
白蚱
Cnidaria
≈ 5,600 [5]
冇腦,能夠對外界刺激俾反應,但冇乜智能可言[6]
Drosophila melanogaster Proboscis.jpg
黑腹果蠅
Drosophila melanogaster
≈ 250,000
經已有相當複雜嘅行為;除咗基本嘅維生能力之外,黑腹果蠅公出咗名喺向啲乸求偶嗰陣會進行快速嘅學習,按求偶對象嘅反應調整自己嘅行為[7][8]
Honeybee landing on milkthistle02.jpg
蜜蜂
Apis
≈ 960,000
具有高度嘅社會性,曉用語言向同伴傳達相當複雜嘅資訊,採蜜嗰時能夠將嘅位置記住超過一個禮拜,仲識得建築大過自己身體好多嘅結構[9]
Octopus vulgaris2.jpg
八爪魚
Octopoda
≈ 500,000,000 [10]
係非人類嘅動物當中首屈一指咁聰明嘅;八爪魚具有長期記憶能力、識得學習、曉運用工具[11],喺水族館入面出咗名成日會用各種方法逃走,搞到水族館工作人員好頭痛[12]
Felis catus-cat on snow.jpg

Felis silvestris catus
≈ 760,000,000 [13]
有複雜嘅行為,有長期記憶能力、識得學習,仲能夠學做各種嘅指令[14]
Blank-man-face.jpg
人類
Homo Sapien
≈ 8.6 × 1010
能夠建立文明

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. Milner, A. D. (1998). Introduction: Comparative Neuropsychology. Chicago: Oxford University Press.
  2. Herculano-Houzel, S. (2009). The human brain in numbers: a linearly scaled-up primate brain. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 3, 31.
  3. Williams RW, Herrup K (1988). "The control of neuron number". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 11 (1): 423–53.
  4. Sengupta, P., & Samuel, A. D. (2009). Caenorhabditis elegans: a model system for systems neuroscience. Current opinion in neurobiology, 19(6), 637-643.
  5. Bode, H.; Berking, S.; David, C. N.; Gierer, A.; Schaller, H.; Trenkner, E. (1973). "Quantitative analysis of cell types during growth and morphogenesis in Hydra". Wilhelm Roux Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen. 171 (4): 269–285.
  6. Brainless jellyfish smarter than you might think. LIVESCIENCE.COM.
  7. Kamikouchi, A., Shimada, T., & Ito, K. E. I. (2006). Comprehensive classification of the auditory sensory projections in the brain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 499(3), 317-356.
  8. Dukas R (2004). "Male fruit flies learn to avoid interspecific courtship". Behavioral Ecology. 15 (4): 695–698.
  9. The Remarkable Bee Brain.
  10. Chudler, Eric H. "Brain Facts and Figures". Neuroscience for Kids.
  11. Finn, J. K.; Tregenza, T.; Norman, M. D. (2009). "Defensive tool use in a coconut-carrying octopus". Current Biology. 19 (23): R1069–70.
  12. Mather, J. A., & Anderson, R. C. (2000). Octopuses are smart suckers. The cephalopod page. Retrieved June, 15, 2001.
  13. Jardim-Messeder, Débora; Lambert, Kelly; Noctor, Stephen; Pestana, Fernanda M.; Leal, de Castro; E, Maria; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N.; Mohammad, Osama B. (2017). "Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species". Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. 11: 118.
  14. How Smart Is Your Cat?.