進化博弈論

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢

進化博弈論粵拼zeon3 faa3 bok3 jik6 leon6英文evolutionary game theory)係將博弈論(game theory)嚟分析生物進化過程嘅一套理論[1]:同冇生命嘅嘢比起上嚟,生物其中一個最大嘅特徵係曉進化-一群同種生物嘅基因庫會因為物競天擇(natural selection)等嘅過程而慢慢噉起變化,經過幾百萬年嘅時間,最後就會演變成截然不同嘅新物種;喺進化博弈論當中,生物學家會將同一個物種入面嘅唔同個體當成博弈者,而報償反映隻生物揀嘅策略有幾能夠幫佢提升佢嘅進化適應性(evolutionary fitness;指隻生物生存落去同繁殖嘅能力);幫到隻生物提升自身進化適應性嘅策略比較有機會通過遺傳流傳到去下一代嗰度,所以更加有機會會喺下一代嗰度出現。憑住呢啲分析,進化博弈論幫到生物學家手了解點解某啲行為零舍常見[2][3][4]

自私嘅基因[編輯]

利他嘅起源[編輯]

古典進化論入面其中一個大問題係解釋利他主義(altruism)嘅進化:利他行為係指一啲對自己冇明顯利益、而係有利他人嘅行為,例如假想有個人參與一場懦夫博弈,唔係揀對自己最有利嘅策略,而係無條件噉揀俾佢對手贏;由古典進化論嘅角度嚟講,呢種行為驟眼睇好似唔合理,因為噉做唔能夠直接噉令到個個體提升自己嘅進化適應性,正路嚟講理應唔會零舍通過到物競天擇嘅考驗流傳到落嚟。廿世紀中至後期嘅生物學家用進化博弈論嚟思考人類當中嘅利他行為,佢哋假想一個簡單嘅博弈模型,規則如下:喺呢場博弈當中有兩個博弈者,兩者各有兩個選項-合作(cooperate)同背叛(defect),如果雙方合作,報償會係(2, 2),而如果其中一方合作另一方背叛,合作方損失 1 而背叛方得益 3,最後如果雙方都選擇背叛,報償會係(0, 0)。呢個模型能夠模擬好多人類現實面對嘅問題-人類日常做嘅工作有好多都要求佢哋合作先做得成[5][6][7]

跟住呢班科學家又假想一個人類群體入面有三種人:

  • 無條件嘅合作者(係唔係都揀合作嘅);
  • 無條件嘅背叛者(係唔係都揀背叛嘅);
  • 有條件嘅合作者-呢種合作者一般會揀合作,除非佢認得個對手,而個對手之前揀過背叛。

然後班科學家用進化論嘅思路嚟諗嘢:行為係可以遺傳嘅[8],所以佢哋用一個簡單嘅模型,假想仔女所屬嘅類型同父母一樣,而一個個體「成功噉生到後代嘅機會率」同佢「最後手上嘅資源量」成正比;佢哋用呢個模型模擬,結果發現,無條件嘅合作者好容易俾無條件嘅背叛者利用,話噉快就因為損失太多資源、生唔到後代而走向滅絕;而跟住落嚟失敗嘅係無條件嘅背叛者-有條件嘅合作者喺撞到無條件嘅背叛者嗰陣識得唔好合作,但撞到其他有條件嘅合作者嗰時識得要合作令自身利益最大化,結果打低咗無條件嘅背叛者,成為咗個群體入面嘅大多數。雖然以上呢個模型做咗好多簡化嘅假設,但佢的確能夠相當準噉描述到現實:事實係,心理學等領域嘅研究表明咗,人類多數都係傾向做有條件嘅合作者-佢哋會做利他嘅行為,但前題係佢哋嘅利他對象唔會利用佢哋嘅好意。呢個進化博弈論分析幫助解釋點解利他行為喺人類裏面進化到出嚟,對進化論嘅發展作出咗貢獻[7][9]

睇埋[編輯]

參考[編輯]

  • Davis, Morton,; "Game Theory – A Nontechnical Introduction", Dover Books, ISBN 0-486-29672-5
  • Dawkins, Richard; "The Selfish Gene", Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-929114-4
  • Dugatkin and Reeve; "Game Theory and Animal Behavior", Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-513790-6
  • Hofbauer and Sigmund; "Evolutionary Games and Population Dynamics", Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-62570-X
  • Kohn, Marek; "A Reason for Everything", Faber and Faber, ISBN 0-571-22393-1
  • Sandholm, William H.; "Population Games and Evolutionary Dynamics", The MIT Press, ISBN 0262195879
  • Segerstrale, Ullica; "Nature's Oracle - The life and work of W.D. Hamilton", Oxford University Press, 2013, ISBN 978-0-19-860727-4
  • Sigmund, Karl; "Games of Life", Penguin Books, also Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0198547838
  • Vincent and Brown; "Evolutionary Game Theory, Natural Selection and Darwinian Dynamics", Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-84170-4

[編輯]

  1. Maynard-Smith, J.; Price, G. R. (1973). "The Logic of Animal Conflict". Nature. 246 (5427): 15–18.
  2. Altenberg, Lee (1995). "Genome growth and the evolution of the genotype-phenotype map". In Banzhaf, Wolfgang; Eeckman, Frank H. (eds.). Evolution and Biocomputation: Computational Models of Evolution. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 899. Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 205–259.
  3. Birdsell, John A.; Wills, Christopher (2003). "The Evolutionary Origin and Maintenance of Sexual Recombination: A Review of Contemporary Models". In MacIntyre, Ross J.; Clegg, Michael T. (eds.). Evolutionary Biology. 33. New York: Springer Science+Business Media.
  4. Game Theory, Evolutionary Stable Strategies and the Evolution of Biological Interactions.
  5. Hamilton, W. D. (1963). The evolution of altruistic behavior. The American Naturalist, 97(896), 354-356.
  6. Bowles, S. (2006). Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism. Science, 314(5805), 1569-1572.
  7. 7.0 7.1 The Evolution of Trust.
  8. Grove, W. M., Eckert, E. D., Heston, L., Bouchard Jr, T. J., Segal, N., & Lykken, D. T. (1990). Heritability of substance abuse and antisocial behavior: a study of monozygotic twins reared apart. Biological psychiatry, 27(12), 1293-1304.
  9. Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. The Quarterly review of biology, 46(1), 35-57.