圖靈測試

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圖靈測試嘅圖解;A 係部受試機械,B 係個對照人類,C 係個評判。評判唔會見到 A 同 B,衹能夠通過文字同兩者溝通。

圖靈測試粵拼tou4 ling4 caak1 si3英文Turing test,簡稱「TT」)係由英國數學家亞倫圖靈(Alan Turing)喺 1950 年諗出嚟嘅一個測試,用嚟檢驗一部機械係咪展現到好似人噉嘅有智能行為。最基本嗰種圖靈測試步驟如下:一次測試會有一個人類負責做評判,跟住又有一個人類同部受試嘅機械,兩者分別噉同個評判講嘢;個評判唔會見得到個人類同個受試者,淨係有得用鍵盤同熒幕等嘅方法同受試者傾偈,最後個評判就要答,兩個受試者當中邊個係人邊個係機械-而如果搵咗一班評判返嚟之後,發現班評判嘅判斷嘅準確性明顯好過隨機靠撞嘅話,嗰部受試機械就算得上係通過咗圖靈測試,展現出同人類冇分別嘅智能[1][2]

圖靈測試喺人工智能哲學(philosophy of artificial intelligence)上係一個重要嘅課題,引起咗廣泛嘅討論。例如有學者批評圖靈測試指出,嚴格嚟講,就算一部機械通過咗圖靈測試,都衹係表示佢曉喺一個人工環境下做某啲工作,但有智能嘅行為要求嘅係能夠喺自然環境下生存,所以圖靈測試喺測試機械智能上嘅功用有限[1][3]。因為噉,有學者諗出咗新版嘅圖靈測試,好似係所謂嘅「真正完整圖靈測試」(Truly Total Turing Test,TRTTT)噉,就認為一部機械要算得上展現人類智能,佢就需要能夠喺自然環境下達成人類能夠達成嘅重大成就,包括係-好似人類噉樣-創作出新遊戲以及創出新嘅語言等等[4]

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參考[編輯]

  • Cohen, Paul R. (2006), "If Not Turing's Test, Then What?", AI Magazine, 26 (4).
  • Marcus, Gary, "Am I Human?: Researchers need new ways to distinguish artificial intelligence from the natural kind", Scientific American, vol. 316, no. 3 (March 2017), pp. 58–63. Multiple tests of artificial-intelligence efficacy are needed because, "just as there is no single test of athletic prowess, there cannot be one ultimate test of intelligence." One such test, a "Construction Challenge", would test perception and physical action—"two important elements of intelligent behavior that were entirely absent from the original Turing test." Another proposal has been to give machines the same standardized tests of science and other disciplines that schoolchildren take. A so far insuperable stumbling block to artificial intelligence is an incapacity for reliable disambiguation. "[V]irtually every sentence [that people generate] is ambiguous, often in multiple ways." A prominent example is known as the "pronoun disambiguation problem": a machine has no way of determining to whom or what a pronoun in a sentence—such as "he", "she" or "it"—refers.
  • Moor, James H. (2001), "The Status and Future of the Turing Test", Minds and Machines, 11 (1): 77–93, doi:10.1023/A:1011218925467, ISSN 0924-6495.
  • Warwick, Kevin and Shah, Huma (2016), "Turing's Imitation Game: Conversations with the Unknown", Cambridge University Press.

[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Saygin, A. P., Cicekli, I., & Akman, V. (2000). Turing test: 50 years later. Minds and machines, 10(4), 463-518.
  2. French, R. M. (1990). Subcognition and the limits of the Turing test. Mind, 99(393), 53-65.
  3. Russell, Stuart J.; Norvig, Peter (2010), Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (3rd ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 2 - 3.
  4. Schweizer, P. (1998), ‘The Truly Total Turing Test’, Minds and Machines, 8, pp. 263–272.

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