新加坡開埠

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢
新加坡開埠
John Michael Houghton, Drawing from the Houghton Album titled 'Singapore from the Rocky Point, 1819', 13 x 18 cm, Collection of National Museum of Singapore.jpg
1819年伴隨萊佛士前往新加坡簽訂條約船員所描繪當時嘅新加坡
類型歷史
日期1819年2月6號
次數特定禧年年份會舉辦紀念活動
國家新加坡
最近2019年2月6號(200週年)
網站
www.sg/sgbicentennial
(官方開埠200週年網頁)(英文)

新加坡開埠[1]英文the founding of Singapore[2])係指1819年英國人萊佛士爵士短暫到訪新加坡,同天猛公以及蘇丹東姑胡先,三人簽署條約批准英國東印度公司喺新加坡開設貿易港[2][3]。另外,因為古代新加坡都曾經係商埠[4],所以亦會稱1819年為「現代新加坡開埠the founding of modern Singapore)」[5][6]。而新加坡政府會喺特定嘅禧年年份舉辦唔同嘅紀念活動。

歷史背景[編輯]

新加坡開埠 (印尼)
新加坡
馬六甲
檳城



馬六甲
海峽
廖內
群島
明古魯
巴東
新加坡位置以及周邊環境

18世紀後期,大英帝國大清帝國商貿日益頻繁,而對於航海路線中途設置英國控制據點嘅需求亦越來越大。於是,英國東印度公司先後喺1786年同1791年同吉打嘅蘇丹簽訂條約租借馬來西亞半島西面嘅檳城[7]。而喺1795年,第一次反法同盟戰爭期間,荷蘭嘅威廉五世喺戰火下流亡英國,佢簽發一系列後世稱為《基佑宮信函(Kew Letters)》嘅信件俾荷蘭喺海外唔同嘅殖民地,指示當地總督將管治權暫時交託俾英國,當中包括馬六甲、巴東等地[8]

1811年,柔佛嘅蘇丹馬末.沙三世離世,隨即觸發佢兩個仔邊個人繼位做新蘇丹嘅問題。大仔東姑胡先當時唔喺柔佛,而係喺彭亨舉辦婚禮,於是乎細仔阿都拉曼把握幾會繼位成為新蘇丹[9]。而大仔之後就俾人放逐隱居到廖內群島入面嘅一個島上[9]

1814年,歐洲局勢穩定後,英國同荷蘭簽訂協議,英國將原本荷蘭嘅殖民地交還[10]。荷蘭繼後喺南洋勢力逐步增強,同時向停泊喺區內荷蘭殖民地嘅船隻徵收大量稅款,包括英國船隻[11]

萊佛士爵士

1818年3月22號,萊佛士爵士喺印尼明古魯出任殖民地副總督[12]。去到同年秋天,佢為咗增加英國喺區內嘅據點,前往印度並成功說服總督支持佢喺馬六甲海峽東南部搵一個適合嘅地點開闢做英國嘅新據點[12]

另一方面,同年11月28號[13]荷蘭同繼位做柔佛蘇丹嘅細仔阿都拉曼達成協議,喺廖內設置駐軍營地[14][11],令荷蘭掌握馬六甲海峽主要航運通道嘅實際控制權[11]

之後喺1819年1月28號,萊佛士爵士抵達新加坡[2]。佢旋即安排會見當時嘅天猛公,並喺兩日後簽訂臨時協議[15],仲立即舉行英國旗升旗禮[2]。但因為協議只係臨時性質,所以仍然需要一份由當地蘇丹簽署嘅正式協議落實。

不過,因為當刻係由細仔阿都拉曼做蘇丹,而細仔同荷蘭關係緊密,所以萊佛士可以成功簽訂協議嘅機會非常低[16]

萊佛士為咗解決依個問題,佢利用繼位問題作為切入點,安排大仔東姑胡先嚟到新加坡,指大仔先至係正統繼位人,宣佈承認東姑胡先為蘇丹[16],並喺2月6號舉行正式簽署儀式,而且事後再一次舉行英國旗升旗禮,新加坡正式開埠[2]

禧年紀念活動[編輯]

新加坡政府會喺特定嘅禧年年份舉辦唔同嘅紀念活動。最近一次新加坡政府大搞開埠紀念活動嘅禧年係2019年嘅二百週年紀念[17][18]

二百週年(2019年)[編輯]

農曆年慶祝燈飾(右側拱門上以中英雙語標示「紀念新加坡開埠200週年」)

為咗紀念開埠200週年,當時新加坡政府提前超過一年,喺2017年年尾已經宣佈設立特別工作組專門負責籌備紀念活動嘅工作[18]。去到2019年,總理李顯龍選擇喺1月28號,即係萊佛士首日登陸新加坡嘅日子,嚟為緊接落嚟一年嘅開埠紀念活動舉行啟動禮[19][20]。紀念活動由政府,以及超過200個團體[19],仲有3,800名義工共同協助籌備[21],當中包括演唱會[22]、燈光匯演[23]、歷史展覽[24]等等。官方亦都為200週年發行紀念郵票同鈔票[25][26][27]

一百五十週年(1969年)[編輯]

1969年係新加坡開埠150週年,亦都係新加坡立國嘅第四年。當時新加坡政府係提早一年,即係1968年年初,就已經開始安排唔同嘅慶祝活動[28]

出面影片嘅拎
YouTube logo
1969年英國皇室雅麗珊郡主出訪新加坡
video icon Princess Alexandra In Singapore (1969)

去到第二年,時任總理李光耀選擇2月6號,喺新加坡商會籌備嘅開埠150週年紀念宴會入面致辭,作為一連串慶祝活動嘅開首[29][30]。當年官方唔單只發行紀念郵票同金幣[31][32],仲特別邀請英國皇室出席開埠紀念活動。當時雅麗珊郡主(Princess Alexandra)就接受新加坡政府嘅邀請,代表英國女皇伊利沙伯二世出訪新加坡參加。喺新加坡嘅七日行程入面,雅麗珊郡主唔單只參加開埠紀念節目,出席新加坡國慶日慶典巡遊,亦探訪新加坡居民[33]

除此之外,當年仲有唔同嘅展覽、演唱會、體育比賽等等唔同節目慶祝開埠150週年[28][34]

睇埋[編輯]

參考[編輯]

  1. 總理李顯龍新加坡總理辦公室 (2019年8月18號). 庆群众大会 2019. 原先內容歸檔喺2022年11月7號. 各位同胞,大家晚上好!新加坡开埠200周年纪念
    今年是新加坡的开埠200周年。1819年是我国发展史的转捩点。那一年,莱佛士登陆新加坡,并且在这里设立了自由贸易港,吸引了大批移民从东南亚、印度和中国到这里谋生。我们的华族先辈有的来自中国广东、潮汕和福建,有的则来自邻近地区如槟城、马六甲和廖内群岛。他们刚来时,大多只能做苦力,勉强糊口。不过,他们刻苦拼搏,结果都找到立足之地,在这里安家立业。一些后来做起小生意,教育程度比较高的会当老师、做记者。有些则成了大园主,或者创办了银行和贸易行。他们可以说是我们的"开埠一代",为这里做出巨大的贡献。
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 新加坡國家圖書館管理局 Singapore Infopedia 資料庫. "Stamford Raffles's landing in Singapore" (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2022年9月14號. 28 Jan 1819: The Indiana and Enterprise anchor at St John's Island. Raffles and Farquhar meet the Temenggong...30 Jan 1819: A draft agreement is penned between the Temenggong and the British, and the Union Jack is raised with little ceremony...6 Feb 1819: The Singapore Treaty is signed between Raffles, the Sultan and the Temenggong, with commanders from the accompanying seven ships witnessing the event. Farquhar is appointed Resident and Commandant under the authority of Raffles, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen. The Union Jack is officially raised. This date is recognised as the official founding of Singapore.
  3. 新加坡國家圖書館管理局 Singapore Infopedia 資料庫. "1819 Singapore Treaty" (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2023年1月5號. On 6 February 1819, Stamford Raffles, Temenggong Abdu'r Rahman and Sultan Hussein Shah of Johor signed a treaty that gave the British East India Company (EIC) the right to set up a trading post in Singapore. In exchange, Sultan Hussein was to receive a yearly sum of 5,000 Spanish dollars while the Temenggong would receive a yearly sum of 3,000 Spanish dollars. It was also on this day that the British flag was formally hoisted in Singapore. It marked the birth of Singapore as a British settlement...The ceremony during which the treaty was signed was attended by the people on the island at the time. Among those present were Chinese planters, Malays, as well as the orang laut. British officials, soldiers and Malay dignitaries at the ceremony dressed in regalia and fine clothes. The treaty was written in English on the left side and Malay on the right. It gave legal backing for the EIC to "maintain a factory or factories on any part of His Highness's hereditary Dominions".
  4. . 2021年5月6號. 原先內容歸檔喺2021年6月17號. 淡马锡在王大渊到来之前已经亡国,再也不是商船前来贸易的港口
  5. 胡逸山 (2016年8月11號). . . 原先內容歸檔喺2016年9月7號. 新加坡的现代开埠就在美国建国初期
  6. 新加坡國家文物局. "Founding of Modern Singapore". www.roots.gov.sg. 原先內容歸檔喺2021-05-16. 喺2021-02-28搵到.
  7. Penang Port Commission. "HISTORY PENANG PORT" (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2022年11月26號. Prior to the English, Penang was originally part of the Malay Sultanate of Kedah . It's known as a harbour for pirates at that time. In 1786, Francis Light established Penang the first British trading post in the Far East . Light had persuaded the Sultan of Kedah to cede Penang to the British East India Company in exchange for military protection from the Siamese and Burmese armies who were threatening Kedah. On11 August 1786, Captain Francis Light, known as the founder of Penang, landed in Penang and renamed it Prince of Wales Island in honor of the heir to the British throne. In 1790, when Sultan Abdullah of Kedah heard that the British would not give protection, he formed an army to get rid of the Dutch and the English. He assembled his men at Prai to retake the island of Penang but was defeated. Captain Francis Light had carried out night raids on the enemy's fortress. In 1791, Sultan Abdullah signed a treaty with the British handing over Penang Island to the British. Light promised to pay the Sultan 6,000 Spanish dollars annually. Today, almost two centuries later, the Penang State Government still pays RM 18,800.00 to the Sultan of Kedah annually.
  8. Andrew Porter, 編 (2001). The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume III: The Nineteenth Century. Oxford University Press. p. 374. ISBN 0199246785. The French Revolutionary Wars drastically reduced the Dutch position in South-East Asia but increased the French challenge to Britain. After the French invaded the Netherlands, William V fled to England and issued the Kew Letters (1795) instructing Dutch Governors overseas to transfer their territories to British safe-keeping. Britain consequently occupied the Cape, Ceylon, Padang (Sumatra), Malacca, Ambon, and Banda.
  9. 9.0 9.1 美國國會圖書館. "William Farquhar Correspondence and Other Malay Letters (1812-1832) at the Library of Congress" (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2022年7月3號. Sultan Abdul Rahman ascended the throne of the kingdom of Johor at the expense of his older half-brother Tengku Hussein who was away in the kingdom of Pahang for his wedding at the time of the passing of their father. Despite the support of certain members at court, Tengku Hussein was unable to claim the throne, and relegated to a quiet existence on an island (Pulau Penyengat).
  10. 英國國會. "Convention Between Great Britain And The Netherlands". 原先內容歸檔喺2022年7月23號.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Singapore: A Country Study" (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2022年11月17號. By 1818 the Dutch had returned to the East Indies and had reimposed their restrictive trade policies. In that same year, the Dutch negotiated a treaty with the Bugis-controlled sultan of Johore granting them permission to station a garrison at Riau, thereby giving them control over the main passage through the Strait of Malacca. British trading ships were heavily taxed at Dutch ports and suffered harassment by the Dutch navy.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900" (英文). In 1817 the court of directors confirmed him in the governorship of Bencoolen, and he took up his appointment there on 22 March 1818...Having received information that the Dutch were fitting out expeditions with the view of occupying all the most commanding situations in the Archipelago, Raffles urged upon his superiors the necessity of taking counter steps. Proceeding to Calcutta in the autumn of 1818 to confer with the government of Bengal, a voyage on which he was shipwrecked at the mouth of the Hooghly, he obtained authority to assume charge of British interests to the eastward of the Straits of Malacca, as agent to the governor-general, and prevailed upon the Marquis of Hastings, who had now been brought to express approval of his conduct in Java, to allow the occupation of Singapore. This almost uninhabited island he had selected even before leaving England as highly fitted for preserving to British trade free access to the eastern islands, and preventing the Dutch from securing the exclusive command of the eastern seas. He had discovered its capabilities in the course of his Malay studies. It was unknown alike to the European and to the Indian world, and it had been overlooked by the Dutch, who conceived themselves to have occupied every place available for securing the only two practicable approaches to the Archipelago—the Straits, namely, of Malacca and Sunda.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. Marks, Harry J. (1959). The First Contest for Singapore 1819-1824 (英文). Brill. p. 47. By this time, of course, Van der CapeIlen had heard of the British occupation of Singapore and had discussed it with Elout, Buyskes, and Wolterbeek. On 25 February 1819 he drew up a document summarizing his views and decisions. "From the somewhat confused reports sent in by the Governor of Malacca," Van der CapeIlen concluded that "it appears almost certain" that a British force under Raffles and Farquhar "has indeed set foot upon the island of Singapore." This island was "a dependency of the empire of Linga, Djohor, Pahang, Riouw, etc.," with which on 28 November 1818 the Netherlands government had signed a treaty wherein the sultan "acknowledged being a vassal of H.M. the King of the Netherlands and as receiving his empire as a lawful and permanent feudal tenure." This document perpetuated the treaty of 1784 which had "never been nuIIified or altered," as the action of former Governor Couperus in ceding Riouw was nuIl and void, never having been ratified by the government. Malacca upon reverting to the Dutch therefore included all the prewar dependencies. Farquhar's "so-called treaty" of the previous August was null and void, the sultan lacking authority to sign such an agreement, and it was expressly outlawed when the sultan in the treaty of 28 November 1818 (Articles 22 and 23) obligated himself never to cede any part of his territories nor to conclude treaties with other powers without consent of the Netherlands government, and abrogated all prior treaties.
  14. 新加坡國家圖書館管理局. "A Royal Wedding Gone Wrong: The 1820 Uprising in Riau That Brought the Bugis to Singapore". BiblioAsia (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2022年12月21號. The Dutch Return to Riau
    No such premonitions were apparent to Königsdorffer when the Dutch frigate Tromp dropped him in Tanjung Pinang on Bintan island. Sometime in November 1818, the Dutch had returned to their former possessions in the East Indies (Malay Archipelago) and were eager to renew their old alliances. Arriving in a show of military force on Pulau Penyengat, they promptly signed a treaty with the reigning Bugis Viceroy or Yang Dipertuan Muda Raja Jaafar, which was sealed with the stamp of Sultan Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah of the Johor-Riau Sultanate. The flag of the Netherlands was raised on the island, and Königsdorffer was appointed Resident and Commandant over the small garrison of 150 men.
  15. 新加坡國家圖書館管理局 Singapore Infopedia 資料庫. "Temenggung Abdul Rahman" (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2022年8月13號. On 28 January 1819, Stamford Raffles and William Farquhar landed in Singapore and met with Temenggung Abdul Rahman to negotiate a provisional treaty. The Temenggung signed the preliminary treaty and allowed for a British settlement in Singapore provided the terms were approved by his patron, Tengku Husain. This agreement that was drafted on 30 January 1819 stated that the Temenggung was the "Ruler of Singapore, who governs the country of Singapore in his own name and in the name of Sree Sultan Hussein Mahummud Shah".
  16. 16.0 16.1 新加坡國家文物局. "A Game of Thrones". Roots (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2022年8月11號. The reigning Sultan at the time was Tengku Abdul Rahman. Tengku Abdul Rahman was the second born son, and his older half-brother, Tengku Hussein Shah, should have been the rightful successor. However, Tengku Hussein Shah was away at Pahang at the time of the Sultan's passing in 1811, which led to his younger half-brother, Tengku Abdul Rahman, becoming Sultan instead. The hasty coronation ceremony to instate Tengku Abdul Rahman as Sultan before Tengku Hussein Shah's return was organised with a politically-charged agenda by the leader of the Bugis faction, effectively aligning themselves with the Dutch...Aware of this dispute, Raffles struck a deal with Tengku Hussein Shah, knowing that this man had the support of the Malay chiefs in Riau and Pahang. It was a calculated move on his part, since Abdul Rahman was crowned by the Bugis faction that allied themselves with the Dutch, and this may have presented challenges in the negotiations for a British trading settlement in the region. Raffles summoned Tengku Hussein Shah to Singapore, acknowledged him as the legitimate successor to the throne, and proclaimed him the Sultan of Johor. An official treaty was signed on 6th February 1819 with Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Sultan Hussein Shah, which gave the British East India Company the right to operate a trading post in Singapore. This acknowledgement was beneficial for both the Temenggong and Sultan Hussein Shah. Both men were paid a handsome sum of money yearly to uphold this agreement.
  17. Singapore Bicentennial Office. "Bicentennial: From Singapore to Singaporean". 原先內容歸檔喺2021年10月19號.
  18. 18.0 18.1 府成立开埠200周年工作组 2019年举办多项纪念活动. . 2017年12月31號. 原先內容歸檔喺2018年4月21號.
  19. 19.0 19.1 李顯龍總理辦公室. "Speech by PM Lee Hsien Loong at the launch of the Singapore Bicentennial on 28 January 2019" (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2022年9月27號. Hence I am glad that for the Bicentennial, over 200 groups and organisations are holding commemorative events.
  20. "1819 marked start of modern, multicultural Singapore: Lee Hsien Loong". The Straits Times (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2022年12月18號. The year-long series of events was launched by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong to mark 200 years since Sir Stamford Raffles' arrival.
  21. 加坡开埠200年工作组将招募3800名志工. . 2018年4月21號. 原先內容歸檔喺2018年4月26號.
  22. 里的乐光 | 新加坡开埠200周年纪念演唱会. . 2019年6月9號. 原先內容歸檔喺2023年1月16號.
  23. 新加坡國家發展部 MND Link 新聞通訊. "i Light Singapore — Bicentennial Edition x Community". 原先內容歸檔喺2023年1月16號.
  24. 府在探讨是否延长开埠200年展览. . 2019年8月6號. 原先內容歸檔喺2020年10月28號. 为纪念新加坡开埠200年设的历史体验展,自6月1日开放给公众预约参观后反应踊跃,也有不少人呼吁让展览延期闭幕。有关当局正在考虑这些请求,也可能将展览改为永久展览,但必须评估技术上的可行性。
  25. 加坡邮政局推出开埠200周年纪念邮票. . 2019年6月22號. 原先內容歸檔喺2019年6月24號.
  26. 埠200周年纪念钞首发 银行未开已排队. . 2019年6月10號. 原先內容歸檔喺2019年6月10號.
  27. 管局推出第二批新加坡开埠200年周年纪念钞. . 2019年9月16號. 原先內容歸檔喺2022年8月7號.
  28. 28.0 28.1 新加坡國家檔案館. "150th Anniversary of the Founding of Singapore" (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2023年1月16號. National celebrations came under the Ministry of Culture (MC) during the early years. Thus, MC drove the plans to celebrate the 150th Anniversary of the founding of Singapore in 1969, on a grand scale and work began in early 1968 following a Cabinet directive. Key programmes included the issue of gold and silver commemorative coins; a series of commemorative stamps depicting key achievements and historical highlights; a commemorative book on the political, economic and social history of Singapore spanning the period 1819-1969; exhibitions; concerts; and other organised activities.
  29. 新加坡國家檔案館 (1969年2月6號). "Document Number: lky19690206" 加坡國際商會慶祝新加坡開埠 150 週年宴會:總理致辭 - 1969年2月6號. 原先內容歸檔喺2023年1月16號.
  30. 新加坡國家檔案館. "SPEECH BY THE PRIME MINISTER AT THE BANQUET GIVEN BY THE SINGAPORE INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE TO MARK THE 150TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOUNDING OF SINGAPORE - 6TH FEBRUARY, 1969" (PDF) (英文). 原先內容歸檔 (PDF)喺2021年9月24號.
  31. 新加坡國家圖書館管理局 (2018年1月9號). "Stamping History". BiblioAsia (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2022年7月7號. The 150th anniversary of the founding of Singapore series in 1969 was the first time that stamps were issued in 12-by-12 centimetre miniature sheets, and featured different designs for each of the six values. To commemorate the milestones in Singapore’s modern history, Eng and Han Kuan Cheng, who were colleagues at Radio Television Singapura, used a semi-abstract graphic style to depict the country's industrialisation (15 cents), entry into the United Nations (30 cents), merger with Malaysia (75 cents), self-government in 1959 ($1), the Japanese Occupation ($5) and the landing of Sir Stamford Raffles ($10).
  32. 新加坡國家文物局. "The Story of Gold in Singapore". Roots (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2022年8月17號. This is the first commemorative gold coin commissioned by the Board of Commissioners of Currency and minted by the Singapore Mint in 1969 to mark the 150th anniversary of Singapore's founding by Sir Stamford Raffles.
  33. Royal Over-Seas League. "FROM THE ARCHIVES: PRINCESS ALEXANDRA VISITS SINGAPORE" (英文). 原先內容歸檔喺2023年1月16號. Fifty years ago in 1969, Singapore marked its 150th anniversary in a high-profile manner too and in a link of special interest to the Royal Over-Seas League, Vice-Patron HRH Princess Alexandra was invited by the Singapore Government to represent HM the Queen to attend the commemoration activities. It was noted by the then-British High Commissioner, Sir Arthur de la Mare, that then-Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew wanted to give the visit 'all possible trappings', including 'as many guns as it [was] possible to fire', and to 'take the opportunity to make manifest [Singapore's] connection with Britain'. Such was the warmth and enthusiasm Singapore had towards the British back then! Princess Alexandra's visit to Singapore lasted for seven days, during which she interacted with everyday Singaporeans, officiated the opening of a reservoir, and most notably attended Singapore's National Day Parade as the principal guest. Throughout the visit, she was warmly received by Singaporeans.
  34. 新加坡國家圖書館管理局. 南亚国术邀请赛 : 庆祝新加坡开埠150周年纪念, 1819-1969. SG Books. 原先內容歸檔喺2023年1月16號.